Linux / Unix: OpenSSH Multiplexer To Speed Up OpenSSH Connections

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How can I multiplex SSH sessions by setting up a master session and then having subsequent sessions go through the master to speed up my ssh connection on a Linux or Unix-like operating systems?

Multiplexing is nothing but send more than one ssh connection over a single connection. OpenSSH can reuse an existing TCP connection for multiple concurrent SSH sessions. This results into reduction of the overhead of creating new TCP connections. First, you need to set a ControlMaster to open a Unix domain socket locally. [donotprint]
Tutorial details
Difficulty level Intermediate
Root privileges No
Requirements OpenSSH client+server
Est. reading time 3 minutes
[/donotprint]Rest of all your ssh commands connects to the ControlMaster via a Unix domain socket. The ControlMaster provides us the following benefits:

  1. Use existing unix socket
  2. No new TCP/IP connection
  3. No need to key exchange
  4. No need for authentication and more

How to setup up multiplexing

Edit $HOME/.ssh/config, enter:
vi ~/.ssh/config
Append the following configuration:

Host *
    ControlMaster auto
    ControlPath ~/.ssh/master-%r@%h:%p.socket
    ControlPersist 30m

Here is another example:

Host server1
  Port 2222
  ControlPath ~/.ssh/ssh-mux-%r@%h:%p
  ControlMaster auto
  ControlPersist yes

Save and close the file. Where,

  • Host * or Host server1 : Start ssh configuration.
  • HostName : The real hostname
  • ControlPath ~/.ssh/ssh-mux-%r@%h:%p : Specify the path to the control unix socket used for connection sharing as described above. The variables ‘%r’, ‘%h’, ‘%p’ refer to remote ssh username, remote ssh host, and remote ssh port respectively. You need to set all of these three variables.
  • ControlMaster auto : Enables the sharing of multiple sessions over a single network connection. When set to yes, ssh will listen for connections on a control socket specified using the ControlPath argument. When set to auto, ssh will try to use a master connection but fall back to creating a new one if one does not already exist.
  • ControlPersist 10m : Specifies that the master connection should remain open in the background for 10 minutes. With no client connections, the backgrounded master connection will automatically terminate after it has remained idle for 10 minutes. If set to yes, then the master connection will remain in the background indefinitely (until killed or closed)

How do I use it?

Simply start running ssh commands:
$ ssh user@host
$ ssh root@v.server1
$ ssh nixcraft@

How do I verify that Multiplexer is working?

Use any one of the following command to verify that Multiplexer is working properly:
$ lsof -U | grep master
$ ssh -O check root@v.server1
Sample outputs:

Fig.01: SSH Multiplexing Check The Status of The Connection

Fig.01: SSH Multiplexing Check The Status of The Connection

Can I tell master connection not to accept further multiplexing requests?

Yes, use the following syntax:
$ ssh -O stop host
$ ssh -O stop root@v.server1

Pass the exit option instead of stop to cancel all existing connections, including the master connection:
$ ssh -O exit host
$ ssh -O exit root@v.server1

How do I the port forwarding?

The syntax is as follows to forward port 3128 on the local host to port 3128 on the remote host using -L:
ssh -O forward -L 3128:localhost:3128 v.server1
You can also specifies the location of a control socket for connection sharing:
ssh -O forward -L 3128:localhost:3128 -S $HOME/.ssh/master-root@v.server1:22 v.server1

The main advantage with SSH multiplexing is that the overhead of creating new TCP connections is removed. SSH client activities that repeatedly open new connections can be significantly speed up using multiplexing. See ssh_config man page for more information.

This entry is 21 of 23 in the Linux/Unix OpenSSH Tutorial series. Keep reading the rest of the series:
  1. Top 20 OpenSSH Server Best Security Practices
  2. How To Set up SSH Keys on a Linux / Unix System
  3. OpenSSH Config File Examples For Linux / Unix Users
  4. Audit SSH server and client config on Linux/Unix
  5. How to install and upgrade OpenSSH server on FreeBSD
  6. Ubuntu Linux install OpenSSH server
  7. Install OpenSSH server on Alpine Linux (including Docker)
  8. Debian Linux Install OpenSSH SSHD Server
  9. Configure OpenSSH To Listen On an IPv6 Address
  10. OpenSSH Server connection drops out after few minutes of inactivity
  11. Display banner/message before OpenSSH authentication
  12. Force OpenSSH (sshd) to listen on selected multiple IP address only
  13. OpenSSH Change a Passphrase With ssh-keygen command
  14. Reuse SSH Connection To Speed Up Remote Login Process Using Multiplexing
  15. Check Syntax Errors before Restarting SSHD Server
  16. Change the ssh port on Linux or Unix server
  17. OpenSSH Deny or Restrict Access To Users and Groups
  18. Linux OpenSSH server deny root user access / log in
  19. Disable ssh password login on Linux to increase security
  20. SSH ProxyCommand example: Going through one host to reach server
  21. OpenSSH Multiplexer To Speed Up OpenSSH Connections
  22. Install / Append SSH Key In A Remote Linux / UNIX Servers Authorized_keys
  23. Use ssh-copy-id with an OpenSSH Server Listening On a Different Port

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9 comments… add one
  • Anthony Ruiz May 7, 2015 @ 0:57

    Does this multiplexing also work to speed up scp transfers?

  • Alex May 7, 2015 @ 6:59

    This method just “reduction of the overhead of creating new TCP connections”.
    If you want to speedup work on host – use gnu screen – “Ctrl+a c” – “Create new window”, and you not won’t to create new connection – you work in unified space.

  • Benjamin May 8, 2015 @ 10:33

    Thanks for the post; I didn’t know this was possible with OpenSSH alone. Perhaps this is no so wide-spread because similar behaviour can be achieved using a terminal multiplexer like screen or tmux? Technically it works different, but as a user you won’t notice the different. When wrapped with byobu these multiplexers become really fancy.

    @Anthony Ruiz: it’s doesn’t really speed up transfer speed. It just saves you the split second it normally takes to set up a new connection.

  • Grant May 12, 2015 @ 16:20

    Yes, ssh master connections (multiplexing) does impact any subsequent connections to the same server, including ssh, scp, sftp, as well as anything that uses these, i.e. rsync.

    Connection multiplexing eliminates the time that it takes to establish a connection and authenticate. Some of the networks that I work on this takes between 15 and 30 seconds. As such, all subsequent operations are quite a bit faster using multiplexing.

    It is not always possible to leverage things like screen / tmux. I quite frequently am running a script on my local system that establishes a master connection to a server and then runs a series of commands remotely via ssy and / or scp files back and forth.

    ssh -o BatchMode=yes -o ConnectTimeout=90 -fMN $server
    ssh -o BatchMode=yes -t $server remoteCommand1
    ssh -o BatchMode=yes -t $server remoteCommand2
    ssh -o BatchMode=yes -t $server remoteCommand3
    scp -o BatchMode=yes /local/path/$file $server:/remote/path/$file
    ssh -o BatchMode=yes -t $server remoteCommand4
    ssh -o BatchMode=yes -t $server sudo remoteCommand5
    ssh -o BatchMode=yes -t $server sudo remoteCommand6
    ssh -O exit $server

    This allows me to run all but the first command extremely quickly even if the connection takes 30+ seconds to establish (i.e. b/c of DNS problems).

    Further, I get to use any and all tools installed on my local system for my business logic. I don’t have to worry about what tools are and are not installed on the remote system.

    There is extreme power in this type of remote command execution that can’t be matched by terminal multiplexers.

    Grant. . . .
    unix || die

  • Leon Jun 6, 2015 @ 7:24

    I think the title is misleading. The reason has been explained by other guys.

  • SC Jan 11, 2017 @ 18:35

    I always start a background connection to start and hold open the channel.

    ssh -MNf host

    • SC Jan 11, 2017 @ 18:38

      Sorry, to be clear, I mean I use the control master setup above, and then I start a background process for the hosts I most commonly use everyday.

  • Daniel Jan 12, 2017 @ 12:18

    How does this impact connection rate-limiting firewall rulesets? and utilities like SSHGuard and Fail2Ban?

  • PGF Jan 12, 2017 @ 14:05

    SSH multiplexing allows you to complete the handshake once, and then establish multiple channels over the same connection. This is advantageous in two situations. One, if you are using extremely slow, old systems. Two, if you are going to establish very frequent connections from the same client to the same host. Outside this, SSH multiplexing won’t make any noticeable difference.

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