sudo (“superuser do”) is nothing but a tool for Linux or Unix-like systems to run commands/programs as another user. Typically as a root user or another user. You can delegate common tasks such as reboot the server or restart the Apache or make a backup using sudo for unprivileged users.
By default, sudo needs that a user authenticates using a password before running a command. Some times you may need to run a command with root privileges, but you do not want to type a password using sudo command. This is useful for scripting or any other purpose. This can be achieved by editing /etc/sudoers file and setting up correct entries. You need to consider any security consequence of allowing a sudo command execute without a password.
How to to run sudo command without a password:
- Backup your /etc/sudoers file by typing the following command:
sudo cp /etc/sudoers /root/sudoers.bak
- Edit the /etc/sudoers file by typing the visudo command:
- Append/edit the line as follows in the /etc/sudoers file for user named ‘vivek’ to run ‘/bin/kill’ and ‘systemctl’ commands:
vivek ALL = NOPASSWD: /bin/systemctl restart httpd.service, /bin/kill
- Save and exit the file.
How do I execute ALL sudo commands without password?
Type the following command as root user:
$ sudo visudo
Append the following entry to run ALL command without a password for a user named tom:
tom ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:ALL
Here is my sample config file:
Save and close the file. Now you can run any command as root user:
$ sudo /etc/init.d/nginx restart
$ sudo /sbin/reboot
$ sudo apt-get install htop
## get root shell ##
$ sudo -i
Please make sure only tom can login via ssh keys.
How do I test it?
Simply run /bin/kill to kill any process without a password:
[vivek@server ]$ sudo /bin/kill pid-here
[vivek@server ]$ sudo /bin/systemctl restart httpd.service
For more info read man pages: sudoers(5),visudo(8)