Run shell script from web page

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Q. How do I run a shell script from a web server or a web page under Apache or Lighttpd websever?

A. In order to run a shell script from a web page you need Apache web server configured with cgi access. Apache CGI allows documents/files in cgi-bin directory treated as application and run by server when requested rather than as documents sent to the client.. It means if you put shell script in cgi-bin directory then you are able to execute them from a web page. However, you cannot simply run shell script from a web. You need to send or print the MIME type before outputting data to the web browser from shell script. You need to add following line to script before you get output back to browser:

echo "Content-type: text/html"
echo ""

Here is the script that can displays today’s date and other information related to your shell script:

# get today's date
# You must add following two lines before
# outputting data to the web browser from shell
# script
 echo "Content-type: text/html"
 echo ""
 echo "<html><head><title>Demo</title></head><body>"
 echo "Today is $OUTPUT <br>"
 echo "Current directory is $(pwd) <br>"
 echo "Shell Script name is $0"
 echo "</body></html>"

Save the script in your cgi-bin directory and execute it from web page.

See also:

=> For more examples see how to: Run Linux / UNIX commands from a web page.

How to: Add or display today’s date from a shell script

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Q. How can I display or show today’s UNIX computer date from a shell script using echo command? How do I store date command output to a variable?

A. Date command is use to print or set the system date and time under Linux/Unix like operating systems. However some time you need to include today’s date in shell script. You need to use command substitution in your shell script to display today’s date. Bash/sh shell performs the expansion by executing command and replacing the command substitution with the standard output
of the command, with any trailing newlines deleted. Command substitution allows the output of a command to replace the command name. You can use following syntax:

For example, type the following at shell prompt to display today’s date:
$ echo "Today is $(date)"

Today is Sat Jan 28 15:48:11 IST 2006

Here is sample script, that stores today’s date in TODAY and hostname in HOST variable:

echo "-----------------------------------------------------"
echo "Date: $TODAY                     Host:$HOST"
echo "-----------------------------------------------------"
# add rest code...

Save above script and execute it. See working shell script that notify admin user if Linux/FreeBSD system load crossed certain limit

Linux LAN card: Find out full duplex / half speed or mode

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Q. How do I find out if my Lan (NIC) card working at full or halt duplex mode / speed under Linux?

A. LAN card or NIC is use to send and receive data. Technically, we use word Duplex for this functionality. Full duplex means you are able to send and receive data (files) simultaneously. In half duplex, you can either send or receive data at a time (i.e. you cannot send receive data (files) simultaneously). Obviously, full duplex gives you best user experience. However, how can I find out whether I am using full duplex/half duplex speed/mode?

Task: Find full or half duplex speed

You can use dmesg command to find out your duplex mode:
# dmesg | grep -i duplex

eth0: link up, 100Mbps, full-duplex, lpa 0x45E1

ethtool command

Uss ethtool to display or change ethernet card settings. To display duplex speed, enter:
# ethtool eth1

Settings for eth1:
        Supported ports: [ TP ]
        Supported link modes:   10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 
                                100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full 
        Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
        Advertised link modes:  10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full 
                                100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full 
        Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
        Speed: 10Mb/s
        Duplex: Full
        Port: Twisted Pair
        PHYAD: 0
        Transceiver: internal
        Auto-negotiation: on
        Supports Wake-on: umbg
        Wake-on: g
        Current message level: 0x00000007 (7)
        Link detected: yes

mii-tool command

You can also use mii-tool to find out your duplex mode. Type following command at shell prompt:
# mii-tool


eth0: negotiated 100baseTx-FD flow-control, link ok


  1. 100baseTx-FD: 100Mbps full duplex (FD)
  2. 100baseTx-HD: 100Mbps half duplex (HD)
  3. 10baseT-FD: 10Mbps full duplex (FD)
  4. 10baseT-HD: 10Mbps half duplex (HD)

mii-tool utility checks or sets the status of a network interface’s Media Independent Interface (MII) unit. Most fast ethernet adapters use an MII to autonegotiate link speed and duplex setting. If you are using old card then this utility may not work (use dmesg command).

This utility is useful for forcing specific Ethernet speed and duplex settings too, setup 100Mbps full duplex speed under Linux:
# mii-tool -F 100baseTx-FD

Setup 10Mbps half duplex:
# mii-tool -F 10baseT-HD

You can find more information about setting duplex speed here using ethtool command.

Updated for accuracy!