How do I find out what network services are running or listing under Linux?

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Q. How do I find out what network service are running under Linux operating system?

A. For security reason it is necessary to find out what services are running. With the help of netstat command, you can print information about the Linux networking subsystem including running services. It can display program name and PID for each socket belongs to. Use netstat as follows:

$ netstat -atup

OR

$ netstat -atup | grep LISTEN

Where,

  • -t : Select all TCP services
  • -u : Select all UDP services
  • -a : Display all listening and non-listening sockets.
  • -p : Display the PID and name of the program to which each socket belongs

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Linux setup shared directory

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Sharing a directory among users in same group is one of the essential tasks. You need to use chmod command and add user to appropriate group. To make idea clear here is an scenario:

  • /home/myproj : is shared directory
  • usr1, usr2, … usrN : would like to work and share files in /home/myproj directory
  • padmin : Main project administrator user

Step # 1: Create a shared directory /home/myproj
If this directory does not exist then create it:

# mkdir /home/myproj

Step # 2: Create the group shared group
You need to create a new group. Let us assume group name is myproj

# groupadd myproj

Step # 3: Add user project administrator (padmin) and setup password:

# useradd -d /home/myproj/ -g myproj -m padmin
# passwd padmin

Step #4: Add rest of users to group myproj

# useradd -d /home/myproj/ -g myproj usr1
# passwd usr1

Add second user:

# useradd -d /home/myproj/ -g myproj usr2
# passwd usr2

… and so on…

Step #5: Setup permission on /home/myproj directory as follows:
(a) Setup group ownership to myproj group:

# chown -R padmin.myproj /home/myproj/

(b) Setup full permission for group and owner on a directory:

# chmod -R 775 /home/myproj/

(c) Setup sgid bit. So what is sgid bit? Normally whenever you creates file in a directory it belong to default group of user. When a file is created in a directory with the sgid bit set it belogns to the same group as the directory. The result is all users of myproj group can create/alter files in /home/myproj directory:

# chmod -R 2775 /home/myproj/

OR

# chmod -R g+s /home/myproj/

See also:

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Do I need antivirus software for linux?

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To be frank there is no serious viruses found so far for Linux. The main reason is Linux is quite secure as compare to Windows. Also, viruses cannot cause any serious damage if they are not activated by root user (that is why you need to use su or sudo command and always login as normal user). However if you are using any one of the following program then consider getting a good virus scanner:

  1. Windows via Samba
  2. Linux Email server
  3. Linux as a router etc

Most are windows virus that, may affects above program.

See also:

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How do I find out the MAC address of my Linux or FreeBSD system?

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Q. Can you tell me how can I find out MAC address under Linux or FreeBSD server?

A. A mac address is acronym for media access control address, is a unique address assigned to almost all-networking hardware such as Ethernet cards, router etc. Most layer 2 network protocols use one of three numbering spaces managed by the IEEE: MAC-48, EUI-48, and EUI-64, which are designed to be globally unique. (see mac address at wikipedia for more information).

Following command work with Linux and other UNIX oses:

ifconfig command

Ifconfig is used to configure the kernel-resident network interfaces.

In order to find out MAC address of system you can use ifconfig command as follows:
$ /sbin/ifconfig | grep HWaddr
Output:

eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:0F:EA:91:04:07

OR

$ /sbin/ifconfig
eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:0F:EA:91:04:07
        inet addr:192.168.1.2  Bcast:192.168.1.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
        inet6 addr: fe80::20f:eaff:fe91:407/64 Scope:Link
        UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
        RX packets:60400 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
        TX packets:109216 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
        collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
        RX bytes:69273219 (66.0 MiB)  TX bytes:14285799 (13.6 MiB)
        Interrupt:18 Base address:0xc000

lo        Link encap:Local Loopback
        inet addr:127.0.0.1  Mask:255.0.0.0
        inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
        UP LOOPBACK RUNNING  MTU:16436  Metric:1
        RX packets:3869 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
        TX packets:3869 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
        collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
        RX bytes:396498 (387.2 KiB)  TX bytes:396498 (387.2 KiB)

OR as a root user type following command:

# grep eth0 /var/log/dmesg
eth0: RealTek RTL8139 at 0xc000, 00:0f:ea:91:04:07, IRQ 18
eth0:  Identified 8139 chip type 'RTL-8100B/8139D'
eth0: link up, 100Mbps, full-duplex, lpa 0x45E1

FreeBSD example

# ifconfig
Output:

lnc0: flags=108843 mtu 1500
        inet 74.xx.yy.zzz netmask 0xfffffff0 broadcast 74.xx.yyy.zzz
        ether 00:0c:29:b8:92:8b
plip0: flags=108810 mtu 1500
lo0: flags=8049 mtu 16384
        inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x3 
        inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128 
        inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000

See also:

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What is a rootkits?

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A rootkit is a:

  • Set of software tools
  • Used by a an intruder
  • Installed by an intruder after gaining access to a computer system
  • They hides:
  • Logins
  • Other processes
  • Files, and logs etc from user

Rootkits exist for a variety of operating systems such as Linux, Solaris and versions of Microsoft Windows. A computer with a rootkit on it is called a rooted computer.

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Why is it possible to create symbolic links across file system boundaries?

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Symbolic links link by pathname rather than inode number. As you know, each pathname is a unique file on a system. Because of this, it is possible to create symbolic links across file system boundaries. Try to create symbolic links using following command:

$ touch /home/you/file1
# ln -s /home/you/file1 /tmp/file2

Find out inode of both file1 and file2

# ls -i /home/you/file1

1567789

# ls -i /tmp/file2

1567795
As you can see inode number are unique to each file. So it is possible to create symbolic links across file system boundaries. Please note that in above example both /tmp and /home are two different file systems.

See also:

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