In order to access USB drive under Linux you need to load special USB driver and support must be included in running Linux kernel. Try following command one by one to solve your problem:
Step # 1 : Make sure your external drive detected by system
Run dmesg command which print or control the kernel ring buffer:
# dmesg | grep Ã¢â‚¬â€œi USB
SLPB PCI0 HUB0 USB0 USB1 USB2 USBE
usbcore: registered new driver usbfs
usbcore: registered new driver hub
USB Universal Host Controller Interface driver v2.3
uhci_hcd 0000:00:1d.0: new USB bus registered, assigned bus number 1
hub 1-0:1.0: USB hub found
uhci_hcd 0000:00:1d.1: new USB bus registered, assigned bus number 2
hub 2-0:1.0: USB hub found
uhci_hcd 0000:00:1d.2: new USB bus registered, assigned bus number 3
usb 1-2: new full speed USB device using uhci_hcd and address 2
hub 3-0:1.0: USB hub found
As you see USB support is included in kernel. You can also verify this with following command:
# lspci -v | grep HCI
0000:00:1d.0 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801DB/DBL/DBM (ICH4/ICH4-L/ICH4-M) USB UHCI Controller #1 (rev 02) (prog-if 00 [UHCI])
0000:00:1d.1 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801DB/DBL/DBM (ICH4/ICH4-L/ICH4-M) USB UHCI Controller #2 (rev 02) (prog-if 00 [UHCI])
0000:00:1d.2 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801DB/DBL/DBM (ICH4/ICH4-L/ICH4-M) USB UHCI Controller #3 (rev 02) (prog-if 00 [UHCI])
0000:00:1d.7 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 82801DB/DBM (ICH4/ICH4-M) USB2 EHCI Controller (rev 02) (prog-if 20 [EHCI])
Step # 2 : Load USB modules/driver
If you cannot see your external USB drive in above dmesg output then try to load usb-uhci and usb-ohci modules (driver):
# modprobe usb-uhci
# modprobe usb-ohci
# modprobe usb-storage
Now again run dmesg:
usb 4-1: new high speed USB device using ehci_hcd and address 3
scsi2 : SCSI emulation for USB Mass Storage devices
usb-storage: device found at 3
usb-storage: waiting for device to settle before scanning
Vendor: SAMSUNG Model: SV4002H Rev: 0811
Type: Direct-Access ANSI SCSI revision: 00
SCSI device sdb: 78242976 512-byte hdwr sectors (40060 MB)
sdb: assuming drive cache: write through
SCSI device sdb: 78242976 512-byte hdwr sectors (40060 MB)
sdb: assuming drive cache: write through
sd 2:0:0:0: Attached scsi disk sdb
usb-storage: device scan complete
Step 3 : Use external USB drive
As you see device sdb assigned to an external USB drive use mount command to mount drive:
List partitions on /dev/sdb:
# fdisk -l | grep sdb
Disk /dev/sda doesn't contain a valid partition table
Disk /dev/sdb: 40.0 GB, 40060403712 bytes
/dev/sdb1 1 4870 39118243+ c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
Now mount partition:
# mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt
You can use command which (use to locate a command). which returns the pathnames of the files which would be executed in the current environment, had its arguments been given as commands in a strictly POSIX-conformant shell. It does this by searching the PATH for executable files matching the names of the arguments.
$ which ls
$ which gcc
MS Internet Information Services (IIS) is a set of Internet-based services such as NTP, FTP, HTTP/HTTPS, SMPT, NNTP etc. It is the world’s second most used web server (number one is Apache Web server).
You need to use IIS 6.0 Manager for Windows XP. With IIS 6.0 Manager for Windows XP, administrators can remotely manage an IIS 6.0 server from a Windows XP Professional desktop computer system.
According to Microsoft documentation, “With IIS 6.0 Manager for Windows XP, administrators can remotely manage an IIS 6.0 server from a Windows XP Professional workstation. This tool only installs a snap-in for Microsoft Management Console and its associated DLLs and documentation; it does not install the complete IIS 6.0 server on your local computer”
You can download (3.7 MB) Internet Information Services (IIS) 6.0 Manager for Windows XP from Microsoft web site.
Under Debian Linux use mkboot command that makes a bootdisk. mkboot only works on floppy disk drive. By default the bootdisk will use the kernel /vmlinuz and the current root partition. Use the -r option to specify a different partition, and provide the new kernel file directly to specify a different kernel. Use the -d option to specify a different device for the floppy drive.
To create a boot disk of the kernel /vmlinuz:
See kernel version (soft link):
# ls Ã¢â‚¬â€œl /vmlinuz
Insert a floppy diskette into your boot drive, and press .
To use second floppy drive /dev/fd1:
# mkboot -d /dev/fd1
Virtual file system (VFS) or Virtual filesystem switch is an abstraction layer on top of a more concrete file system. The purpose of a VFS is to allow for client applications to access different types of concrete file systems in a uniform way. A VFS can for example be used to access local and network storage devices transparently without the client application noticing the difference. Or it can be used to bridge the differences in Windows, Mac OS and Unix filesystems, so that applications could access files on local file systems of those types without having to know what type of file system they’re accessing.
More info about VFS:
Under Linux you can create a Virtual File System as follows
Use dd command to create a VFS disk image (5 MB):
$ dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/vfs-disk count=10240
Format your disk image with mkfs.ext3 command:
$ mkfs.ext3 /tmp/vfs-disk
When prompted for confirmation type ‘y’ to format VFS disk image.
Mounting VFS with a loopback device:
# mkdir -p /mnt/vfs0
# mount -o loop=/dev/loop0 /tmp/vfs-disk /mnt/vfs0
It will act as a normal file system. You can take this image to other computer and mount it.
Q. How do I open .daa file under Linux or UNIX or Windows?
A. You need to use PowerISO for Linux (windows xp/vista/2000 user see below)– This is a free utility for linux which can extract, list, and convert image files (including ISO, BIN, DAA, and other formats). Type “poweriso -? ” for detailed usage information. It is a disk image format that supports advanced features, such as compression, password protection, and splitting to multiple volumes.
Update: Checkout AcetoneISO – a GUI utility for Linux and the disk image emulator that mounts images of DVD and CD media. It can open your .daa file.
Open .daa file – Linux only program
Download poweriso here. Or use wget program:
$ wget http://poweriso.com/poweriso-1.2.tar.gz
$ tar -zxvf poweriso-1.2.tar.gz
Task: list all files and directories in root direcory of /mnt/iso/obsd39/cd39.iso
$ ./poweriso list /mnt/iso/obsd39/cd39.iso /
$ ./poweriso list /mnt/iso/obsd39/cd39.iso / -r
Convert files/directories from .daa image file
Convert image file to other format. For example convert image.daa to standard iso file, enter:
$./poweriso convert image.daa -o image.iso -ot iso
Extract files/directories from image file
Extract all files and directories in root directory of /mnt/iso/obsd39/cd39.iso to /tmp recursively:
$ ./poweriso extract image.iso / -od /tmp
Task: Display help
Type poweriso -? for help:
$ ./poweriso -?
Open daa file – MS Windows only program
You need to use special shareware program called PowerISO to open .daa extension files. This program only works under MS-Windows. See PowerISO web site for more information.
Download a free copy of PowerISO (trial version i.e. try it before you purchase software) for MS-Windows.
hdparm command provides a command line interface to various hard disk ioctls supported by the stock Linux ATA/IDE device driver subsystem. Some options may work correctly only with the latest kernels.
Getting hard disk information
You can safely use hdparm to get hard disk information. For example, try out following command to get information about SCSI hard disk (login as the root user):
# hdparm /dev/sda
OR get detailed information:
# hdparm Ã¢â‚¬â€œI /dev/hda
ATA device, with non-removable media
Model Number: SAMSUNG SP0822N
Serial Number: S06QJ10Y123456
Firmware Revision: WA100-31
Used: ATA/ATAPI-6 T13 1410D revision 1
Supported: 7 6 5 4 & some of 7
Logical max current
cylinders 16383 65535
heads 16 1
sectors/track 63 63
CHS current addressable sectors: 4128705
LBA user addressable sectors: 156368016
LBA48 user addressable sectors: 156368016
device size with M = 1024*1024: 76351 MBytes
device size with M = 1000*1000: 80060 MBytes (80 GB)
LBA, IORDY(can be disabled)
Queue depth: 1
Standby timer values: spec'd by Standard, no device specific minimum
R/W multiple sector transfer: Max = 16 Current = ?
Recommended acoustic management value: 254, current value: 0
DMA: mdma0 mdma1 mdma2 udma0 udma1 *udma2 udma3 udma4 udma5
Cycle time: min=120ns recommended=120ns
PIO: pio0 pio1 pio2 pio3 pio4
Cycle time: no flow control=120ns IORDY flow control=120ns
* READ BUFFER cmd
* WRITE BUFFER cmd
* Host Protected Area feature set
* Write cache
* Power Management feature set
Security Mode feature set
SMART feature set
* FLUSH CACHE EXT command
* Mandatory FLUSH CACHE command
* Device Configuration Overlay feature set
* 48-bit Address feature set
Automatic Acoustic Management feature set
SET MAX security extension
* DOWNLOAD MICROCODE cmd
* SMART self-test
* SMART error logging
Master password revision code = 65534
not expired: security count
supported: enhanced erase
50min for SECURITY ERASE UNIT. 50min for ENHANCED SECURITY ERASE UNIT.
HW reset results:
CBLID- below Vih
Device num = 1 determined by the jumper
You can also find out how fast your hard disk can read or write (cache) data. Run following command 2-3 times to get meaningful results:
# hdparm Ã¢â‚¬â€œtT /dev/hda
Timing cached reads: 1008 MB in 2.00 seconds = 502.96 MB/sec
Timing buffered disk reads: 54 MB in 3.09 seconds = 17.46 MB/sec
Setting hard disk parameters
Setting parameter can be dangerous. Your OS/Linux kernel is optimized to autodetect the correct settings for most hard drives. Do not try to set new values using hdparm command. Wrong parameter may result into loss and/or corruption of data. Read man page of hdparm for all options. You can configure your hard disk using /etc/hdparm.conf under Debian Linux. Under RedHat Linux try /etc/sysconfig/harddisk file.
Caution: Do not modify above files, leave files, as it is unless you know exactly what you are doing.