Linux / Unix Q & A and HowTos For intermediate Users

intermediate Linux, macOS, *BSD, and Unix-like tutorial {Q & A} for developers and sysadmins. You can get the latest tutorial using the RSS/XML feed or weekly newsletter.

See all Alpine Linux related FAQ
I am using Alpine Linux v3.18 or v3.19 with my LXD/Incus server. How do I upgrade Alpine Linux v3.19 to Alpine Linux v3.20? How can I upgrade Alpine Linux v3.18 to Alpine Linux v3.20?
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See all Debian/Ubuntu Linux related FAQ
DNSCrypt-proxy is an open-source and free software designed to encrypt DNS traffic, thus protecting it from eavesdropping and manipulation. This is also useful to evade DNS censorship when DNSCrypt-proxy is configured correctly with Wireguard or OpenVPN. Further, DNSCrypt-proxyΒ can configured to block malware, trackers, and internet ads. In Debian 11 and 12, using DNSCrypt-proxy can enhance privacy and security by preventing DNS spoofing attacks, DNS hijacking, and surveillance of DNS traffic. It ensures that DNS queries are encrypted, authenticated, and secure, thereby safeguarding users’ browsing activities and sensitive information. Let us see how to install dnscrypt-proxy on Debian Linux 11 and 12.
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See all Ubuntu Linux related FAQ
Ubuntu 24.04 LTS (Noble Numbat) was launched on April 25th, 2024. This new version will be supported for five years until June 2029. The armhf architecture now provides support for the Year 2038 problem. The upgrades include significant updates to core packages like Linux kernel, systemd, Netplan, toolchain upgrades for better development support, enhanced security measures, and performance optimizations. It also has an updated GNOME desktop environment and other default applications. Let us see how to upgrade Ubuntu 22.04 LTS to Ubuntu 24.04 LTS using the CLI over ssh-based session.
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See all Amazon AWS web services related articles/faq
AWS SES (Amazon Simple Email Service) is a cloud-based email-sending service that is both reliable and cost-effective. This service is offered by Amazon Web Services. Postfix is a popular email server for Debian and Unix-like systems. It is an open-source Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) responsible for routing and delivering emails. Debian Linux is a widely used Linux distribution known for its stability and user-friendliness for server usage. Let us see how to integrate AWS SES with the Postfix MTA on Debian Linux version 11/12.
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See all Debian/Ubuntu Linux related FAQ
You can install LXD pure-container hypervisor on Debian 11 Linux to run an unmodified version of Debian, Ubuntu, CentOS, Fedora, Alpine, Arch and many other Linux distro. You can mimic AWS or different cloud instance types with LXD for testing and deployment purposes on your development machine. You can also run a GUI app such as Firefox completely isolated using LXD for security or privacy reasons. Let us see how to set up and use LXD on the Debian Linux 11 server or desktop.
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See all Ubuntu Linux related FAQ
Ubuntu 22.04 LTS comes with LXD pure-container hypervisor to run an unmodified version of Debian, Ubuntu, CentOS, Fedora, Alpine, Arch and many other Linux distro. You can mimic AWS or different cloud instance types with LXD for testing and deployment purposes on your development machine. You can also run a GUI app such as Firefox completely isolated using LXD for security or privacy reasons. Let us see how to set up and use LXD on the Ubuntu Linux 22.04 LTS using APT or snap command.
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