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Linux: Find out what kernel drivers (modules) are loaded

How do I find out what Linux kernel drivers are loaded by Linux? How do I list device drivers (or so-called modules) loaded into memory?
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Is my hardware compatible with Linux?

Q. After spending last 6 years with Windows, I’m ready to give out Windows XP and move to Linux. Hardware compatibility is particularly important to me. Here is my configuration:
Intel Pentium D 930 CPU
Intel On board display and sound card
1 GB RAM
2 x 120 GB hard disk
Sony DVD writer
USB Pen and 1.44 MB Floppy etc

I use computer for Internet / Email and OO for document writing. I need system for writing Perl and PHP code.

Is my hardware compatible with Linux? Which Linux distribution is easy to use?

A. Most old and Intel technology should work with Linux. It is hard to guarantee that your hardware will be 100% compatible. The best way to check this is download any one of the available Live CD from the net. Burn the disk and simply boot from Live CD. If everything worked out fine, you can backup all data and install Linux.

I recommend Ubuntu Linux for new users but there are other distros as well. Check out this post about selecting Linux distributions.

HowTo Disable The Iptables Firewall in Linux

I need to disable firewall in Linux for testing purpose. I’m using CentOS and RHEL version 4.4 / 5 / 6. How do I disable the firewall in Linux?
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Move or migrate user accounts from old Linux server to a new Linux server

Q. How do I Move or migrate user accounts to from old Linux server a new Cent OS Linux server including mails? This new system a fresh installation.

A. You can migrate users from old Linux server to new Linux sever with standard commands such as tar, awk, scp and others. This is also useful if you are using old Linux distribution such as Redhat 9 or Debian 2.x.

Following files/dirs are required for traditional Linux user management:
* /etc/passwd – contains various pieces of information for each user account

* /etc/shadow – contains the encrypted password information for user’s accounts and optional the password aging information.
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Where do I download Red Hat Enterprise Linux?

Q. Where do I download Red Hat Enterprise Linux?

A. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is not available for download. It is a commercial and supported Linux distribution.

Red Hat Network (RHN) (free registration required) has the trial version or demo version and you can download ISO images for Red Hat Enterprise Linux. After evaluation period you need to purchase support.

However I recommend downloading CentOS which is 100% Red Hat Enterprise Linux based free system. Another option is to try out Debian stable Linux.

You may also get free RedHat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) if you are leasing a server from dedicated hosting service providers.

How do I turn on telnet service on for a Linux / FreeBSD system?

Q. Can you example how can I install telnet service or server under Linux or FreeBSD operating system?

A. TELNET (TELetype NETwork) is a network protocol used on the Internet or local area network LAN connections.

The telnetd program (telnet server) is a server which supports the DARPA telnet interactive communication protocol. Telnetd is normally invoked by the internet server inetd or xinetd for requests to connect to the telnet port as indicated by the /etc/services file. Usaually telnet listen on port TCP port 23.

Telnet in is insecure protocol and it is recommended that you use ssh server. But some time you really need telnet then first install telnet server as according to version of Linux distribution.

Telnet server installation

WARNING! Installing telnet open your computer to unencrypted network communication, which is a bad idea. If possible avoid telnet; and use secure shell called ssh.

Debain/Ubuntu Linux user type the following command:
# apt-get install telnetd
OR
$ sudo apt-get install telnetdFedora Linux user the following command:
# yum install telnet-server telnetRed Hat enterprise Linux user type the following command:
up2date telnet-server telnetFreeBSD user type the following command:
No need to install new (telnet server) package, it is installed by default (/usr/libexec/telnetd)

Configure telnet server (turn on telnet server)

Again each distribution has its own method to turn on or off telnet service; same applies to telnet UNIX/Linux server.

If you are using Red Hat / Fedora Linux
The configuration file for telnet is /etc/xinetd.d/telnet. To enable telnet server you need to open this file and make sure disable = no read as disable = yes.
Alternately,
# chkconfig telnet onTo start telnet server type command:
# /etc/init.d/xinetd restartIf you are using Debian Linux
The configuration file for telnet is /etc/inetd.conf. By default it is enabled when you install telnet server. To start telnet server type command:
# /etc/init.d/inetd restartIf you are using FreeBSD
The configuration file for telnet is /etc/inetd.conf. Open file using vi text editor and uncomment line:
# vi /etc/inetd.conf
Make sure commented line:
#telnet stream tcp nowait root /usr/libexec/telnetd telnetdRead as follows:
telnet stream tcp nowait root /usr/libexec/telnetd telnetdSave and close the file. Start telnet service:

Enable inetd service so that telnet get loaded:
# vi /etc/rc.confAppend/add following line to configuration file:
inetd_enable="YES"Save and close the file, Rsstart telnet via inetd service:
# /etc/rc.d/inetd restart

Telnet to server (How do I use telnet client?)

You should now be able to telnet to the server from Windows or Linux desktop system. Type the following command to connect to Telnet server:telnet server-ip-address
telnet 192.168.1.5

Linux – What defines a user account?

Q. Can you tell us what defines a user account under Linux operating system?
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