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linux system

Does Linux grub replace Windows MBR?

Q. I’m willing to try out Ubuntu Linux but my question is Does Linux grub replace Windows MBR? Can I dual boot between Windows and Linux system?

A. Yes when you install GRUB on first partition, windows MBR get replaced. In most cases GRUB automatically adds an entry for Windows XP / Vista so that you can enjoy dual booting out of box after Ubuntu Linux installation.

In case if you made any mistakes while performing Linux installation you can restore GRUB.

I recommend making a backup of all important data / files before making any changes to MBR / file system or operating system or Ubuntu Linux installation.

Linux LILO boot procedure freezes with LI characters (Lilo boot loader LI error)

Q. My Linux system says LI while booting system and then boots procedure freezes or halts. How do I solve this problem?

A. LILO is a generic boot loader for Linux. This error means few things. LI characters indicate that LILO is having problems. It cannot boot the system.

a) Goto BIOS and set LBA mode for hard disk and reinstall Linux

b) Make sure /boot partition created below the 1023rd cylinder on the hard drive, if not repartition and reinstall Linux

c) See this page for more information.

HowTo: Find Which Kernel Version Is Installed On My Linux System

I am a new proud Linux user. My question to you is – how do I find which kernel version installed on my Linux system? How do I upgrade my kernel to latest version? Any help would be greatly appreciated.
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Move or migrate user accounts from old Linux server to a new Linux server

Q. How do I Move or migrate user accounts to from old Linux server a new Cent OS Linux server including mails? This new system a fresh installation.

A. You can migrate users from old Linux server to new Linux sever with standard commands such as tar, awk, scp and others. This is also useful if you are using old Linux distribution such as Redhat 9 or Debian 2.x.

Following files/dirs are required for traditional Linux user management:
* /etc/passwd – contains various pieces of information for each user account

* /etc/shadow – contains the encrypted password information for user’s accounts and optional the password aging information.
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Linux mount and access a compact flash card – howto

Q. I have a compact flash card reader hardware device connected to USB port of computer system. Now how do I mount and access a compact flash card connected to this Linux system (Fedora Core)?

A. Your compact flash card will automatically detected by Linux. First create a mount point (type the following command as root user):

# mkdir -p /mnt/cflashcard
If you don’t have any SCSI device, your first partition on a compact flash card should be /dev/sda1 (second will be /dev/sda2 and so on). If you have 1 SCSI device attached, your first partition on a compact flash card should be /dev/sdb1.

Mount partition using mount command:
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/cflashcard
To see or access files:
# cd /mnt/cflashcard
# ls -l

Open /etc/fstab file:
# vi /etc/fstab
Add an entry (append) to /etc/fstab file:
/dev/sda1 /mnt/cflashcard auto user,rw,exec 0 0
Save and close the file.

How do I unmount or unplug card?

First unmount card with umount command and then unplug card:
# umount /mnt/flash