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operating systems

HowTo: Reverse a String In Unix / Linux Shell?

How do I reverse lines of a file or files under Linux or Unix like operating systems?
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Bash Shell Script To Test For Empty Folder

How do I check if a directory contains files? How do I find out if a directory contains files using bash shell under Linux or Unix like operating systems?
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Linux / Unix: Generate A MD5 String

I need to generate a md5 hash for given string. It will be used by shell script to generate keys for remote web service or cryptographic application. How do I generate a md5 hash based on any input string under Linux or Unix like operating systems?
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Linux / Unix: Find Inode Of a File Command

How do I find out an inode (index-node) of a file under Unix like operating systems?
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Unix / Linux Shell: Get Third Field Separated by Forward Slash (/) Delimiter

I‘m writing a shell script for automation purpose. The output the path of the current working directory is stored in $PWD or it can be obtained using the pwd command. How do I find out find out 3rd field separated by the forward slash (/) delimiter using $PWD under Unix like operating systems?
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Bash Shell: Check File Exists or Not

How do I test existence of a text file in bash running under Unix like operating systems?
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HowTo: Iterate Bash For Loop Variable Range Under Unix / Linux

How can I iterate bash for loop using a variable range of numbers in Unix or Linux or BSD or Apple OS X operating systems?
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Linux / Unix AWK: Read a Text File

How do I read a text file using awk pattern scanning and text processing language under Linux / Unix like operating systems?
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Linux / Unix: scp Copy All Hidden Dot Files

I‘m using scp command to copy files from one server to another server. The problem is that I’m unable to copy all hidden files (such as .bash_history). How do I copy hidden files using the scp command under Unix like operating systems?
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Unix / Linux: Find Information About The Process Including All Command Line Parameters

I‘m using ps command to read a snapshot of the current processes under Unix / Linux operating systems. However, ps -e or ps aux only displays command / processes names. I need to see complete information about the process including all parameters passed to it. How do I see it under Unix / Linux using ps command?
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