BIND: Clocks are Unsynchronized Error and Solution

in Categories , , , , , , , , , , , , , , last updated February 1, 2009

Q. I’ve configured BIND named TSIG as documented here. It worked for some time, but my /var/log/messages got the errors as follows:

zone refresh: failure trying master (source clocks are unsynchronized: 9 Time(s)
zone refresh: failure trying master (source clocks are unsynchronized: 9 Time(s)

How do I fix these errors under Debian Linux 64 bit etch server?

FreeBSD Enable PF ALTQ Firewall Support

in Categories , , , , last updated October 2, 2008

Q. Under FreeBSD 7.0 patch level 5, I’m getting following warning message:

Enabling pf.
No ALTQ support in kernel
ALTQ related functions disabled
No ALTQ support in kernel

I need ALTQ support for my FreeBSD box. How do I enable ALTQ for Class Based Queuing (CBQ) to divide a connection’s bandwidth into different classes or queues to prioritize traffic based on filter rules?

How To Use rsync Command To Backup Directory Under Linux

in Categories , , , , , , , last updated April 2, 2008

Q. How do I use rsync command to back up a home directory under Linux operating system?

A. rsync command easily backup your home directory to local secondary hard disk or remote server using ssh protocol. rsync is a software application for Unix systems which synchronizes files and directories from one location to another while minimizing data transfer using delta encoding when appropriate.

Task: Backup /home/tom to /mnt/usbpen

Assuming that USB pen or external USB hard disk is mounted at /mnt/usbpen, enter the following command to backup (sync) new files and changes to existing files but don’t remove files in backup directory:
$ rsync -au /home/tom /mnt/usbpen
To delete files in backup directory that no longer exist in directory being backed up, enter:
$ rsync -au --delete /home/tom /mnt/usbpen

See our previous article about using rsync for transferring files under Linux or UNIX from local or remote network computer.

Boot Ubuntu Linux into Rescue mode to fix system

in Categories , last updated January 8, 2008

Q. How do I boot my Ubuntu Linux server into Rescue mode to fix system?

A. You can boot Ubuntu Linux into rescue mode when things go wrong, there are several ways to work on fixing them. However, you must understand your system and what to fix in case of emergency.

Use this mode only if your system is unbootable. It is also recommended that you make backup of important data.

=> Start Computer / reboot computer

=> Put your Ubuntu install CD

=> Make sure BIOS is set to boot from CD

=> Now booting will start from Ubuntu install CD

=> You will see various option screen – select Recover a broken system

You will system is booting in to rescue mode; system will ask about Network and other information. This is required to setup rescue environment.

Now you will prompted to select root partition or device.

Next it will try to mount root device and it will notify the same.

Now you will see common rescue mode option such as Reinstall GRUB or open / execute a shell etc.

Now you are in rescue mode and you need to use your own knowledge to rescue the system. When things go wrong, there are several ways to work on fixing them.

Few things to remember….

The rescue-mode CD mounts your root filesystem at /target directory. Open or execute a shell and change directory to /target
# ls /target
# cd /target
# mount

If you need to run fsck command use fdisk -l command to find out partition name. Usually they are located at /dev/discs/discX/partY. For example repair 2nd partition (not mounted as /target) you may type command:
# ls -l /dev/discs/disc0
# fsck.ext3 /dev/discs/disc0/part1

To exit type command :
# sync ;sync
# exit
# reboot

As I said earlier in rescue mode, there is no single command that I can recommend to fix problem. You need to use your own knowledge to rescue the system and don’t forget to read command documentation before using any command.