Linux / UNIX: tar Command Stay In Local / File System When Creating Archive

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I‘d like to make / file system backup but the problem is there are other file systems mounted under / such as:

/mnt/cdrom
/mnt/nfs
/iscsi
/boot
/var

I’d like to skip all other file systems mounted at / and only make backup of local / and not /boot, /var, /iscsi, and /mnt/cdrom etc. How do I force tar to use a single file system under Linux / UNIX / BSD operating systems?

Extract tar.gz File

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I have downloaded a file called foo.tar.gz from the Internets. How do I extract tar.gz file under Linux / UNIX like operating systems using command line options?