Shell scripting (BASH) : Notify admin user if script load crossed certain limit

Posted on in Categories Linux, Monitoring, Shell scripting last updated March 23, 2005

It is possible to monitor UNIX system load average and if it crossed certain limit an email can be send to admin user or even text via pager/sms.

1) Download/view chksysload.bash script

2) Open script using vi:
# vi chksysload.bash

3) Customize it according to your needs:
# Setup up limit below
NOTIFY=”6.0″
# Setup admin user email-id
EMAIL=”[email protected]
# Subject for email
SUBJECT=”Alert $(hostname) load average”

4) Save and close the file.

5) Install script as cronjob

Bash Shell: Find Out Linux / FreeBSD / UNIX System Load Average

Posted on in Categories Linux, Monitoring, Sys admin, UNIX last updated March 23, 2005

Yes, I know we can use the uptime command to find out the system load average. The uptime command displays the current time, the length of time the system has been up, the number of users, and the load average of the system over the last 1, 5, and 15 minutes. However, if you try to use the uptime command in script, you know how difficult it is to get correct load average. As the time since the last, reboot moves from minutes, to hours, and an even day after system rebooted. Just type the uptime command:

Shell scripting (BASH) : How to accept password in script

Posted on in Categories Linux, Shell scripting, Sys admin, Tips, UNIX last updated March 23, 2005

You can use read command with -s option, which causes input coming from a terminal to not be echoed. This is useful to verify password or something else.

One line is read from the keyboard or from file descriptor FD if the -u option is supplied, and the first word is assigned to the first NAME, the second word to the second NAME, and so on, with leftover words assigned to the last NAME. Only the characters found in $IFS are recognized as word delimiters. If no NAMEs are supplied, the line read is stored in the REPLY variable. If the -r option is given, this signifies `raw’ input, and backslash escaping is disabled. The -d option causes read to continue until the first character of DELIM is read, rather than newline. If the -p
option is supplied, the string PROMPT is output without a trailing newline before attempting to read. If -a is supplied, the words read are assigned to sequential indices of ARRAY, starting at zero. If -e is supplied and the shell is interactive, readline is used to obtain the line. If -n is
supplied with a non-zero NCHARS argument, read returns after NCHARS characters have been read. The -s option causes input coming from a terminal to not be echoed.

Following script, demonstrate this concept:

1) Download/view the passwordscript.bash script

2) Save the changes and execute script:
$ chmod +x passwordscript.bash
$ ./passwordscript.bash

Linux > More on USER ID, Password, and Group management

Posted on in Categories FAQ, Howto, Linux, UNIX last updated March 23, 2005

In order login into Linux system (over ssh or other services ) you need a username and password.
Username and password stored in /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow file respectively. When you supplies password, it encrypts and compare with password stored in /etc/shadow, which is also in, encrypted format (it was stored when you or system administrator registers/updates it). If both are equal, you are in. Once logged in, you become the number to Linux kernel. You can obtain your user id and other information using id command:

$ id
uid=1002(vivek) gid=1002(vivek) groups=1002(vivek), 0(wheel)

Where,
=> Username = vivek
=> User numeric id (uid) = 1002

Numbers are uses to represent users and groups in Linux kernel because:
1) Simplified user and group management
2) Security management easy
3) Your UID applied to all files you create

It is always good idea to use the UID more than 1000 for all users for security reason.

Zero UID

The UID number 0 is special and used by the root user. The zero (0) UID enjoys the unrestricted/unlimited access to Linux system. Note that 0 UID assigned to name root; if you wish you can change this (poorly written program may fail) and assign different name.

Similarly, you have group id (GID). It is use by Linux to refer group names. Single user can be member of multiple groups. This result into very good flexibility for access the system and the sharing files. Many UNIX system uses wheel group as power user group. Like the UID value, zero GID value zero enjoys the unrestricted/unlimited access to Linux system.

Some time Linux and other UNIX like (FreeBSD, Solaris etc) uses EUID, RUID, and SUID concept.

The Effective User ID (EUID)

It is use to determine what level of access the current process has. When EUID is zero then the process has unrestricted/unlimited access. Following commands can be used to print Effective User ID under Linux:
$ whoami
$ id -un

The Real User ID (RUID):

It is use to identify who you actually are. Once it is setup by system (usually login program) it cannot be change till your session terminates. You cannot change your RUID. Only root (or person having zero UID) can change the RUID. Use the command id as follows to obtain Real user ID:
$ id –ru

The Saved User ID (SUID):

When new process / executable file such as passwd, started the effective user id that is in force at the time is copied to the saved user id. Because of this feature, you are able to update your own password stored in /etc/shadow file. Off course, executable file must have set-user-id bit on in order to setuid (system call). Before process ending itself it switches back to SUID.

In short,

  • RUID : Identify the real user, normal user cannot change it.
  • EUID : Decides access level, normal user can change it.
  • SUID : Saves the EUID, normal user cannot change it.
  • Real Group ID : Identify the real group
  • Effective Group ID and Supplementary group ID : Decides access level

Note that access level means kernel can determine whether you have access to devices, files etc.

Solaris tar command to backup data on tape device

Posted on in Categories Howto, Solaris, Sys admin, Tips, UNIX last updated March 22, 2005

Tar name come from Tape ARchiver. It is both a file format and the name of the program used to handle such file. Tar archive files have names ending in “.tar”. If an archive is compressed, the compression program adds its own suffix as usual, resulting in filename endings like “.tar.Z”, “.tar.gz”, and “.tar.bz2”. Tar doesn’t require any particular filename suffix in order to recognize a file as an archive. Tar was originally created for backups on magnetic tape, but it can be used to create tar files anywhere on a filesystem. Archives that have been created with tar are commonly referred to as tarballs.

Create a new set of backup

To create a Tar file, use tar command as follows:
# tar cvf /dev/rmt/X file1 file2 dir1 dir2 file2 …
Where

  • c – Create a new files on tape/archive
  • v – verbose i.e. show list of files while backing up
  • f – tape device name or file

For example, backup /export/home/vivek/sprj directory to tape device /dev/rmt/0, enter
# tar cvf /dev/rmt/0 /export/home/vivek/sprj/
Remember c option should only use to create new set of backup.

Appending or backing up more files to same tape using tar

tar provides r option for appending files to tape. For example to backup /data2/tprj/alpha1 files to same tape i.e. appending files to a first tape device:
# tar rvf /dev/rmt/0 /data2/tprj/alpha1/*
Where

  • r – append files to the end of an archive/tape

List files on a tape using tar command

To display file listing of a first tape use tar as follows:
# tar tvf /dev/rmt/0
To listing the Contents of a Stored Directory (for example wwwroot directory):
# tar tvf /dev/rmt/0 wwwroot
Where

  • t – list the contents of an archive/tape

Retrieve / restore tape backup taken with tar

1) Use tar command as follows to retrieve tape drive backup to current directory:
(a) Change directory where you would like to restore files:
# cd /path/to/restore
# pwd

(b) Now, do a restore from tape:
# tar xvf /dev/rmt/0

To specify target directory use –C option

Restore everything to /data2 directory:
# tar xvf /dev/rmt/0 –C /data2
To retrieve directory or file use tar as follows:
# tar xvf /dev/rmt/0 tprj
Note that Solaris tar command is little different from GNU tar, if you wish to use gnu tar with Solaris use command gtar. Gnu tar accepts same command line options plus bunch of additional options 🙂

See Sun Solaris tar man page and tapes ~ creates /dev entries for tape drives attached to the system.

Solaris : Tape device names and control the tape drive

Posted on in Categories News last updated March 22, 2005

Before backing up data on a device, you must understand the tape device-naming schema:

First tape device name: /dev/rmt/0
Second tape device name: /dev/rmt/1

rmt = raw magnetic tape device

You can also add special character letter to specify density using following format
/dev/rmt/ZX

Where

  • Z is tape drive number such as 0,1..n
  • X can be any one of following (as supported by your device, read the manual of your tape device & controller to see if all of them supported or not):
  • l – Low density
  • m – Medium density
  • h – High density
  • u – Ultra density
  • c – Compressed density
  • n – No rewinding

For example to specify the first, drive with high-density with no rewinding use device /dev/rmt/0hn.
(Check out all of our posts on Solaris)

Linux > Command line BitTorrent client

Posted on in Categories Linux, RedHat/Fedora Linux, Shell scripting, Suse Linux, Tip of the day, Tips, Ubuntu Linux, UNIX last updated March 14, 2005

BitTorrent is the name of a peer-to-peer (P2P) file distribution protocol, and of a free software implementation of that protocol.

The BitTorrent client is a computer program developed by BitTorrent, Inc. used to download and upload files via the BitTorrent protocol. You can download python based command line BitTorrent client download for Linux/BSD/Mac OS X/UNIX link oses. This is quite useful, if you would like to download file remotely over SSH session. bittorrent.com offers bittorrent client in .deb (Debian Linux) or rpm (RedHat/Fedora Core/CentOS Linux) file formats.

To use the bittorrent in command line one you need to use command bittorrent-console or bittorrent-curses (see below for examples).

Step # 1: Find Python version

Make sure you download file according to your python version. Type following command to find out python version:
$ python -V
Output:

Python 2.4.2

Step # 2: Download bittorrent client

Use wget to download bittorrent client

Download bittorrent client for Debian Linux:

$ wget http://download.bittorrent.com/dl/bittorrent_5.0.3_python2.4.deb

Download bittorrent clientFor Red Hat / Fedora Core / Cent OS Linux

$ wget http://download.bittorrent.com/dl/BitTorrent-5.0.3-1-Python2.4.noarch.rpm

Step # 3: Linux Install BitTorrent client

First login as a root user (use su or sudo command). If you are using Debian Linux, use dpkg command install bittorrent client
# dpkg -i bittorrent_5.0.3_python2.4.deb
If you are using Red Hat / Fedora Core /Cent OS Linux, use rpm command install bittorrent client:
# rpm -ivh BitTorrent-5.0.3-1-Python2.4.noarch.rpm

Step # 4: Start using or downloading files

Use bittorrent client as follows:
$ /usr/bin/bittorrent-curses 'http://www.some.org/DesktopBSD.iso.torrent'
OR
$ bittorrent-curses 'http://www.some.org/DesktopBSD.iso.torrent'
OR
$ /usr/bin/bittorrent-curses '/path/to/file.torrent'
You can try out pure console based client bittorrent-console instead of curses based client:
$ bittorrent-console '/path/to/file.torrent'
$ /usr/bin/bittorrent-console 'http://www.some.org/DesktopBSD.iso.torrent'

Tips about using and Troubleshooting BitTorrent client

(A) If you get [Errno 2] No such file or directory, you need to use wget or lynx command to download .torrent file to local hard drive first. For example
$ bittorrent-curses 'http://www.mininova.org/get/some_file[222].torrent'
First download download .torrent file using any one of the following method:
$ lynx 'http://www.mininova.org/get/some_file[222].torrent'
When prompted save .torrent file to a hard-disk. Another option is use wget to download .torrent file:
$ wget 'http://www.mininova.org/get/some_file[222].torrent'
Now start the downloading as follows:
$ bittorrent-curses 'some_file[222].torrent'

(B) If you get error ‘This seems to be an old Python version which does not support detecting the filesystem encoding. Assuming ‘ascii’, then upgrade your python version to 2.4.xx:

Debian user upgrade python version using apt-get command:
# apt-get update
# apt-get install python2.4

Red Hat Linux user try out:
# up2date python2.4
Fedora Linux user try out:
# yum install python2.4

Remember if you have both versions (python v2.3 and v2.4) installed, you need to run bittorent client as follows:
$ python2.4 /usr/bin/bittorrent-curses '/path/to/file.torrent'
Command line BitTorrent client should work with other UNIX like operating systems such as FreeBSD/OpenBSD/Solaris etc (as long as you have Python it should work).

The current client enables a range of features including multiple parallel downloads. It also intermediates peering between itself, source file servers (read as trackers) and other clients, thereby yielding great distribution efficiencies. The client also enables users to create and share torrent files. See help files for more information.

See also: