Passthrough print is the process of having a UNIX (or similar) host program print on the printer attached to your terminal (or PC running terminal emulation). Its advantages are:
=> It prints where the user is, without requiring complicated procedures to equate printers with users.
=> It works over direct serial, modem, multiplexor, TCP/IP, etc.
=> It is immediate.
This document covers implementation of passthrough print on a UNIX/Linux host system, where this feature is not already enabled.
It worked for me and it may be helpful to someone out there 🙂
Different Linux distributions and/or UNIX operating system, and control panels stores Apache web server configuration file at different locations. There are different ways to locate configuration file.
Apache is, by default, installed in /etc/httpd directory. But this path also depends on how apache has been compiled. Default configuration file name httpd.conf.
Using httpd command
To find the location where apache is installed and to print configuration file location, run the following command:
# httpd -v
Here is the output from my Fedora Core/RedHat (RHEL) Linux server:
Server version: Apache/2.0.54
Server built: Jan 17 2006 06:36:00
Server's Module Magic Number: 20020903:9
Server compiled with....
-D APR_HAVE_IPV6 (IPv4-mapped addresses enabled)
HTTPD_ROOT points to default location /etc/httpd and line SERVER_CONFIG_FILE points to configuration file conf/httpd.conf. So the path is /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
If you are using Debian Linux try apache-perl:
# apache-perl -V
cPanel/Plesk Control Panel
If you are using third party control panel, then you can find out Apache configuration file inside your /home/username/ directory or /var/www/vhosts/ directory.
Using find command
This is an old good (read as geekey) classic way to locate httpd.conf file:
# find / -name 'httpd.conf' -print
You may have to wait for few seconds/minute to search complete. Or try out locate command:
# locate httpd.conf
I canÃ¢â‚¬â„¢t wait to get my hands dirty with new release+ZFSÃ¢â‚¬Â¦ 😀
Finally new updated Solaris 10 6/06 Release with ZFS is here. You can download it from SunÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s web site.
According to Sun blog, it has following features:
* ZFS, Sun’s revolutionary new filesystem
* Predictive Self Healing for x64 systems
* Predictive Self-Healing SNMP trap support
* Postgres bundled
* vold service conversion to SMF
* IPv6 for IPFilter
* More UDP and TCP/IP performance improvements
* In-kernel SSL proxy for SSL performance
* PCI Express support on x86 systems including hotplug
* Native SATA framework
* gnome-pilot support for PDA synchronization
* Xorg 6.9
* See the official page for more info about features: What’s New in the Solaris 10 6/06 Release.
yum is an interactive tool or automated update program which can be used for maintaining systems using rpm (read as RedHat and friends).
It allows you to install single package or group of package. For example let us say you are running a web server with PHP+MySQL. Now you need complete development environment i.e gcc C/C++ compilers, subversion cvs, perl and related libraries. You can install them in one shot with the following command:
# yum groupinstall 'Development Tools'
You can remove all developer tools with the following command:
# yum groupremove 'Development Tools'
Or better update all tools to latest version:
# yum groupupdate 'Development Tools'
You can obtain list of all groups with the following command:
# yum grouplist | less
Compatibility Arch Support
Authoring and Publishing
Compatibility Arch Development Support
DNS Name Server
Engineering and Scientific
GNOME Desktop Environment
GNOME Software Development
Games and Entertainment
KDE (K Desktop Environment)
KDE Software Development
Legacy Network Server
Legacy Software Development
Server Configuration Tools
Sound and Video
Windows File Server
X Software Development
X Window System
XFCE Software Development
You can also gather information about all packages that belongs to a group:
# yum groupinfo 'Development Tools'
This is a handy feature, to install or remove software(s). If any one has more information about similar options (w/o front-end) for apt-get command, then please comment it back below.
VServer is use to create a virtual private server (VPS). Sukrit Dhandhania show us how to build VPS quickly with VServer.
FTA “…BSD users can improve system security with that operating system’s jail mechanism, which creates a partition of resources, thereby creating a logical barrier between services running inside different such jails. Under Linux, an application called Linux-VServer implements pretty much the same functionality. It partitions a system’s resources — namely CPU, memory, hard disk, and network — so that processes inside of the partitions are limited to their context, which makes denial of service attacks less likely to succeed. This is one reason why many hosting companies use virtual servers…
Linux-VServer allows you to create virtual private servers and security contexts, which operate like normal Linux servers but allow many independent servers to be run simultaneously in one box at full speed. It utilizes operating system-level virtualization to enable the kernel to partition resources…”.
You can also use XEN or VMWARE server (free version) for same purpose 🙂
SGI Shatters Linux Scalability Records Yet Again With 1,024 Processors Running Under Single Copy of Linux.
FTA “…On its powerful and acclaimed SGI(R) Altix(R) 4700 blade platform and a beta version of SUSE(R) Linux Enterprise Server 10 from Novell, SGI demonstrated a single system image (SSI) running on a world-record 1,024 processors. Until that moment, the largest Linux SSI operated on 512 processors — another SGI record…Ã¢â‚¬Â
Wow! Administrating such box will be fun (or may be pain) 😉
Read more at: Lxer news
This is a great read about how they are moving to Sun Niagra server and open Solairs from DELL+FreeBSD/Linux combination!
FTA, “…Start with a few white box PCs built from spare parts, add a distribution of Linux, sprinkle in some great search technology, wave of the hand and capital and voila: you have a data-center down by the river …
Oh, and hardware? The new(ish) Sun Niagra servers are practically the size of a 17 inch laptop and much more interesting. They provide 4-5 times the compute power of a comparable Dell server and use far less power. And heat? ItÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s getting cold in here…
So we woke up. Joyent has begun to use Sun technologies in a number of ways. WeÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ve been aggressively replacing our Dell hardware running FreeBSD and Ubuntu with a combination of Sun Opteron and UltraSparc servers running OpenSolaris…”
Read more at: Leviathan toys with Zeus
Common Unix Printing System (CUPS) is a modular computer printing system for Apple OS X, Linux and UNIX like operating systems. It allows Linux computer to act as a printer server. As a server it accepts printing requests from all client computer and send them to actual printer. It does printing accounting and other important stuff.
Our last poll asked readers of this blog the question:
Are you going to try or upgrade to enterprise grade Ubuntu Linux (code-named Dapper Drake)?
Thanks to everyone, total 338 people responded to the poll. Results are as follows:
- 51% said they are happy with current setup/Linux/BSD distribution
- 33% said they are willing to upgrade
- 15% said they are not sure or they are not going to upgrade
It looks like people are following old mantra: If It’s Not Broken, Don’t Fix It. Personally I will stick to *BSD or RHEL only.
New poll: Which Webserver do you use?
Again I am using Apache 1.3x and lighttpd (for rails apps). I am interested to see what fellow sys admins are using and why?
Recently my friend highlighted something that can be use to examining gcc complier behavior.
You can pass following options to gcc
- -v : Display the commands executed to run the stages of compilation on screen.
- -x language : I am using C
- /dev/null : Use /dev/null as input file
For example when I type the following command:
gcc -v -x c /dev/null
Using built-in specs.
Configured with: ../src/configure -v --enable-languages=c,c++,java,f95,objc,ada,treelang --prefix=/usr --enable-shared --with-system-zlib --libexecdir=/usr/lib --without-included-gettext --enable-threads=posix --enable-nls --program-suffix=-4.0 --enable-__cxa_atexit --enable-clocale=gnu --enable-libstdcxx-debug --enable-java-awt=gtk-default --enable-gtk-cairo --with-java-home=/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.4.2-gcj-4.0-220.127.116.11/jre --enable-mpfr --disable-werror --with-tune=i686 --enable-checking=release i486-linux-gnu
Thread model: posix
gcc version 4.0.4 20060507 (prerelease) (Debian 4.0.3-3)
/usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.0.4/cc1 -quiet -v /dev/null -quiet -dumpbase null -mtune=i686 -auxbase null -version -o /tmp/ccMVab5b.s
ignoring nonexistent directory "/usr/local/include/i486-linux-gnu"
ignoring nonexistent directory "/usr/include/i486-linux-gnu"
#include "..." search starts here:
#include <...> search starts here:
End of search list.
GNU C version 4.0.4 20060507 (prerelease) (Debian 4.0.3-3) (i486-linux-gnu)
compiled by GNU C version 4.0.4 20060507 (prerelease) (Debian 4.0.3-3).
GGC heuristics: --param ggc-min-expand=81 --param ggc-min-heapsize=96075
as -V -Qy --32 -o /tmp/ccyCAfmi.o /tmp/ccMVab5b.s
GNU assembler version 2.16.91 (i486-linux-gnu) using BFD version 2.16.91 20060413 Debian GNU/Linux
/usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.0.4/collect2 --eh-frame-hdr -m elf_i386 -dynamic-linker /lib/ld-linux.so.2 /usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.0.4/../../../../lib/crt1.o /usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.0.4/../../../../lib/crti.o /usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.0.4/crtbegin.o -L/usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.0.4 -L/usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.0.4 -L/usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.0.4/../../../../lib -L/usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.0.4/../../.. -L/lib/../lib -L/usr/lib/../lib /tmp/ccyCAfmi.o -lgcc --as-needed -lgcc_s --no-as-needed -lc -lgcc --as-needed -lgcc_s --no-as-needed /usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.0.4/crtend.o /usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.0.4/../../../../lib/crtn.o
/usr/lib/gcc/i486-linux-gnu/4.0.4/../../../../lib/crt1.o: In function `_start':
../sysdeps/i386/elf/start.S:115: undefined reference to `main'
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status