A web stack is nothing but collection of many open source software such as an operating system, Web server, database server, server side programming language. The most commonly known web stacks is LAMP. It is an acronym for a solution stack of free, open source software, referring to the first letters of Linux (operating system), Apache Web server, MySQL database software and PHP (or sometimes Perl or Python). All of our security related tutorials recommends running different network services on separate systems or vm instance. Naturally, this limits the number of other services that can be cracked in the event that an attacker is able to successfully exploit a software flaw in one network service. This is also one of the most requested article via email. In this guide, I will explain how to setup a solution that can serve static content, dynamic content, database, and caching by running on separate servers or vm instance.
The Apache web server is responsible for providing access to dynamic content via the HTTP or HTTPS protocol. In this example, I’m going to install and use the Apache 2 web server + php5 safely and set DocumentRoot to vm05:/exports/html mounted at /var/www/html. You need to type the following commands on vm02 having an IP address 192.168.1.11.
This blog post is part in the “Run Different Linux Network Services on Separate Systems/VM” series.
You can create URL redirection service for your blog within five minutes using nothing but web server’s mod_redirect module. For example, when you type or share a url io9.in/t/5159 you will be automatically redirected to http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/my-10-unix-command-line-mistakes.html. In this quick post I will explain how to create url shortener and integrate your wordpress based blog without installing any new scripts.
The last time I wrote about CDN, I wrote about how to configure CDN for wordpress to speed up your wordpress blog to display content to users faster and more efficiently. However, a few regular readers like to know how to configure the Amazon CDN or other CDN network to use with Vbulletin forum software. In this quick tutorial, I will explains how to configure Vbulletin, Apache/Lighttpd webserver, Bind dns server to use a CDN to distribute your common files such as css, js, user uploaded files and lighten load on your web server.
Internet has revolutionized the way online users can shop and avail banking services like internet Banking from anywhere, anytime without visiting bank. But, how safe is your money with online net-banking which allows to carry out money transfer? Companies and in some case individuals lost anywhere from $10,000 to $500,000 dollars because of a single malware infection. The cyber crooks are targeting innocent MS-Windows user. If you are concerned about how best to protect yourself from this type of fraud, use Linux LiveCD for online banking and avoid Microsoft Windows at all cost.
Research shows that if your web pages take longer than 5 seconds to load, you lose 50% of your viewers and sales. As a UNIX admin often end users and web developers complain about website loading speed and timings. Usually, there is nothing wrong with my servers or server farm. Fancy java script and images / flash makes site pretty slow. These tools are useful to debug performance problems for sys admins, developers and end users. Here are six tools that can analyzes web pages and tells you why they are slow. Use the following tools to:
- Make your site faster.
- Debug site problem, especially client side and server side stuff.
- Better user experience.
- Improve the web.
If you do not control or throttle end users, your server may run out of resources. Spammers, abuser and badly written bots can eat up all your bandwidth. A webserver must keep an eye on connections and limit connections per second. This is serving 101. The default is no limit. Lighttpd can limit the throughput for each single connection (per IP) or for all connections. You also need to a use firewall to limit connections per second. In this article I will cover firewall and lighttpd web server settings to throttle end users. The firewall settings can be applied to other web servers such as Apache / Nginx and IIS server behind PF / netfilter based firewall.
Apache Security Update – a flaw In Apache can be used to carry out DoS. Slowloris is a new Apache DoS tool which can use slow Internet links to bring down Apache servers, rather than flooding networks. Most D/DoS tool requires faster net connections but this tool works with minimal bandwidth. This tool can lead to a DoS attack on Apache 1.x, 2.x, dhttpd, GoAhead WebServer, and Squid, while MS IIS6.0, IIS7.0, and lighttpd are confirmed not vulnerable to this attack.
Now, mod_fastcgi is configured and running. FastCGI supports connection via UNIX sockets or TCP/IP networking. This is useful to spread load among various backends. For example, php will be severed from 192.168.1.10 and python / ruby on rails will be severed from 192.168.1.11. This is only possible with mod_fastcgi.