FreeBSD Display Information About The System Hardware

last updated in Categories FreeBSD, Hardware, Howto

FreeBSD comes with different utilities, which can be use to gathered the information as per your needs. uname command is use to print system information. dmesg command is use to print kernel ring buffer information. sysctl command is use to configure kernel parameters at runtime as well as to read hardware information.

Following list summaries, all the command you need to gather FreeBSD hardware information.

1) Determining the Hardware Type/platform:
# uname -m
2) Determining machine processor architecture:
# uname -p
3) Determining FreeBSD release level:
# uname -r
Generally, following command is use to get all info at a time:
# uname -mrs

FreeBSD 5.0-RELEASE i386

4) Determining CPU information such as speed, make etc
# dmesg | grep CPU

CPU: Pentium 4 (1716.41-MHz 686-class CPU)
acpi_cpu0:  on acpi0
acpi_cpu: CPU throttling enabled, 8 steps from 100% to 12.5%

5) Determining real and available memory to FreeBSD:
# dmesg | grep memory

real memory  = 201326592 (192 MB)
avail memory = 188555264 (179 MB) 

Alternatively, try following command to grab memory information:
# sysctl -a | grep hw.*mem
# sysctl -a | grep mem


hw.physmem: 194985984
hw.usermem: 167641088
hw.cbb.start_memory: 2281701376

Note systcl has more info, just type the sysctl command to see rest of all information:
# sysctl -a | less
6) Determining how long a system has been up:
# uptime
7) Determining when a system was last rebooted or shutdown:
# last -1 reboot
# last -1 shutdown

8) Determining swap file system usage
# swapinfo -k
9) Determining who is logged in and what they are doing. Following all commands can be used. users command displays the list of all logged in users only.
# w
# who
# users

10) Find out when user was last logged in – You can use last command as follows:
# last user-name
(a) To find out user vivek was last logged, enter:
# last vivek

See FreeBSD getsysinfo.bash script. It is use to find general FreeBSD system information such as, hostname, OS version, Kernel version, Processor/CPU, Total RAM, System load, network interface, total logged in users, Hard disks, Runlevel etc. Make sure your read the detailed installation instruction.

Linux: Burn multi session CDs on Linux

last updated in Categories CentOS, Debian Linux, File system, Gentoo Linux, Hardware, Howto, Linux, Linux desktop, RedHat/Fedora Linux, Suse Linux, Ubuntu Linux

Under Linux you can use tool called cdrecored (use to record audio or data Compact Discs) with mkisofs (use to create an hybrid SO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem with optional Rock Ridge attributes ) for this purpose.

Step #1: Create first session as follows

1) Create an iso image first:

# mkisofs -R -o /tmp/cd.iso /backup/06-07-2004/


  • -R : Uses Rock Ridge naming convention/attributes
  • -o : Name of new iso file (cd.iso)
  • /backup/06-07-2004/ : Everything in /backup/06-07-2004/ will be put into cd.iso file

2) Burning the disk (or an ISO image) for first session:

# cdrecord -dev=0,0,0 -multi -data -v -eject -speed=4 /tmp/cd.iso


  • -dev=0,0,0 : device number (tip you can use cdrecord -scanbus command to get this number)
  • -multi : Start multi session disk
  • -data : This option required for HP and Sony CD Writer only.
  • -v : Verbose i.e show info while burning the disk
  • -eject : Ejects the CD when done
  • -speed=4 : Write speed (4x)
  • cd.iso : Name of image being burned

3) Mount cdrom and see the contains:

# mount /mnt/cdrom
# ls /mnt/cdrom
# rm -f /tmp/cd.iso

OR< pre># mount /dev/hda /mnt/cdrom; ls /mnt/cdrom; rm -f /tmp/cd.iso
4) You can also verify that how many sessions written so far:

# umount /mnt/cdrom
# cdrecord -dev=0,0,0 -toc


  • -dev=0,0,0 : Device number
  • -toc : Retrieve and print out the table of content

Step #2: Burning the disk (or ISO image) for next session

Next session is bit tricky. You need to specify last sessions starting and ending sector numbers this information can be obtained from the following command:

# cdrecord -dev=0,0,0 -msinfo



1) Create next session ISO file:

# mkisofs -o /tmp/ses2.iso -R -V session2 -C $(cdrecord -dev=0,0,0 =msinfo)
-M 0,0,0 /backup/07-07-2004


  • -C $(cdrecord -dev=0,0,0 –msinfo) : This option is needed when mkisofs is used to create the image of a second session or a higher level session for a multi session disk
  • -M 0,0,0 : Specifies path to existing iso9660 image to be merged.

2) Burning the disk (or an ISO image) for second session:

# cdrecord -dev=0,0,0 -multi -data -v -eject -speed=4 /tmp/ses2.iso

3) Mount cdrom and see the contains:

# mount /mnt/cdrom; ls /mnt/cdrom; rm -f /tmp/ses2.iso


# mount /dev/hda  /mnt/cdrom; ls /mnt/cdrom; rm -f /tmp/ses2.iso

Note: When you wish to close disk (multi session cd), omit the -multi option for last session.

Online references:

How to configure cisco router using linux for (COM port) configuration

last updated in Categories Hardware, Howto, Linux

If you would like to configure Cisco router using Linux or FreeBSD (connected to a local COM port). Use the following instruction to configure device:

1) Connect cisco router to com port using serial cable

2) Use program like minicom (type minicom at a shell prompt)
$ minicom

3) Select the port, speed and /dev/ttyS0 as com1 port and save configuration as dfl. Next select Exit

4) Continue with your router configuration…

5) For more information on minicom read man page here

6) Other links:

* Cisco Router Configuration Tutorial
* Accessing a Cisco Router using FreeBSD (command also works with linux)