In Linux and UNIX system services are configured using various text files located in /etc/ or /usr/local/etc/ directory tree. A typical server system could have dozens of configuration files. You can check your configuration files for syntax errors without starting the server and validate all settings. In some cases, it is possible to check the sanity of specific data/config options and directories. Text files are easier to manage remotely. You can use ssh and a text editor. If there is an error in configuration, the server may not start. It may result in a disaster. This post explains how to quickly find out a syntax error for popular servers and test configuration file for syntax errors.
Internet has revolutionized the way online users can shop and avail banking services like internet Banking from anywhere, anytime without visiting bank. But, how safe is your money with online net-banking which allows to carry out money transfer? Companies and in some case individuals lost anywhere from $10,000 to $500,000 dollars because of a single malware infection. The cyber crooks are targeting innocent MS-Windows user. If you are concerned about how best to protect yourself from this type of fraud, use Linux LiveCD for online banking and avoid Microsoft Windows at all cost.
As a system admin, I need to use additional hard drives for to provide more storage space or to separate system data from user data. This procedure, adding physical block devices to virtualized guests, describes how to add a hard drive on the host to a virtualized guest using VMWare software running Linux as guest.
It is possible to add or remove a SCSI device explicitly, or to re-scan an entire SCSI bus without rebooting a running Linux VM guest. This how to is tested under Vmware Server and Vmware Workstation v6.0 (but should work with older version too). All instructions are tested on RHEL, Fedora, CentOS and Ubuntu Linux guest / hosts operating systems.
A redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) allows high levels of storage reliability. RAID is not a backup solution. It is used to improve disk I/O (performance) and reliability of your server or workstation. A RAID can be deployed using both software and hardware. But the real question is whether you should use a hardware RAID solution or a software RAID solution.
In this post I will document my experience with both software and hardware RAID.
I‘ve Windows Vista installed as a guest under Ubuntu Linux using VMWARE Workstation 6.0. This is done for testing purpose and browsing a few site that only works with Internet Explorer. Since I only use it for testing I made 16GB for Vista and 5GB for CentOS and 5GB in size for FreeBSD guest operating systems. However, after some time I realized I’m running out of disk space under both CentOS and Vista. Adding a second hard drive under CentOS solved my problem as LVM was already in use. Unfortunately, I needed to double 32GB space without creating a new D: drive under Windows Vista. Here is a simple procedure to increase your Virtual machine’s disk capacity by resizing vmware vmdk file.
WARNING: This tutorial only works with older Linux kernels version such as 2.6.xx.
A typical question from my mailbag:
How do I find out if a given PCI hardware is supported of by the current CentOS / Debian / RHEL / Fedora Linux kernel?
You can easily find out find out if a given piece of PCI hardware such as RAID, network, sound, graphics card is supported or not by the current Linux kernel using the following utilities under any Linux distributions.
The Blue Screen of Death (BSoD) is used by Microsoft Windows, after encountering a critical system error. Linux / UNIX like operating system may get a kernel panic. It is just like BSoD. The BSoD and a kernel panic generated using a Machine Check Exception (MCE). MCE is nothing but feature of AMD / Intel 64 bit systems which is used to detect an unrecoverable hardware problem. MCE can detect:
- Communication error between CPU and motherboard.
- Memory error – ECC problems.
- CPU cache errors and so on.
This is an user contributed article.
Linux computer console is a physical device to operate a computer / server. Here are few steps which, if taken, make it more difficult for an attacker to quickly modify a system from its console.
Some time ago ext4 was released and available for Linux kernel. ext4 provides some additional benefits and perforce over ext3 file system. You can easily convert ext3 to ext4 file system. The next release of Fedora, 11, will default to the ext4 file system unless serious regressions are seen. In this quick tutorial you will learn about converting ext3 to ext4 file system.
Recently, I noticed that the timeout values differ on CentOS v5.x and RHEL Linux 5.x guests on VMWare ESX4 and ESX3.5. I’ve notices that older ESX 3.5 set a 60 secs timeout and ESX4.x set to 180 secs. Luckly you can fix it easily:
# vi /etc/udev/rules.d/99-vmware-scsi-udev.rules
RUN+="/bin/sh -c 'echo 180 >/sys$DEVPATH/device/timeout'"
Find timeout value (180) and change it as per your requirements. Make sure you install the vmware-tools RPM.