How To Avoid Sudden Outburst Of Backup Shell Script or Program Disk I/O on Linux

Posted on in Categories High performance computing, kernel, Linux, Storage, Troubleshooting, Tuning last updated December 16, 2015

A sudden outburst of violent disk I/O activity can bring down your email or web server. Usually, a web, mysql, or mail server serving millions and millions pages (requests) per months are prone to this kind of problem. Backup activity can increase current system load too. To avoid this kind of sudden outburst problem, run your script with scheduling class and priority. Linux comes with various utilities to manage this kind of madness.

Find and Fix Linux Latency Problem with LatencyTOP Software

Posted on in Categories GNU/Open source, Howto, Linux, Linux desktop, Monitoring, Troubleshooting, Tuning last updated January 19, 2008

A TOP-like tool for monitoring system latency and its causes for Linux system.

The Intel Open Source Technology Center is pleased to announce the release of version 0.1 of LatencyTOP, a tool for developers to visualize system latencies. Skipping audio, slower servers, everyone knows the symptoms of latency. But to know what’s going on in the system, what’s causing the latency, how to fix it… that’s a hard question without good answers right now.

LatencyTOP is a Linux tool for software developers (both kernel and userspace), aimed at identifying where in the system latency is happening, and what kind of operation/action is causing the latency to happen so that the code can be changed to avoid the worst latency hiccups.
Linux Latency Problem with LatencyTOP Software
(Fig. 01: LatencyTOP in Action [ Image Credit: Intel Corp. ])

Download LatencyTOP

=> Visit official project site to download LatencyTOP software. Please note that you also need to patch Linux kernel.

rssh: Per User Configuration Options For Chroot Jail

Posted on in Categories Debian Linux, File system, FreeBSD, Howto, Linux, Networking, RedHat/Fedora Linux, Security, Suse Linux, Sys admin, Tuning, Ubuntu Linux, UNIX, User Management last updated January 12, 2008

rssh is a restricted shell for providing limited access to a host via ssh. It also allows system wide configuration and per user configuration. From the man page:
The user configuration directive allows for the configuration of options on a per-user basis. THIS KEYWORD OVERRIDES ALL OTHER KEYWORDS FOR THE SPECIFIED USER. That is, if you use a user keyword for user foo, then foo will use only the settings in that user line, and not any of the settings set with the keywords above. The user keyword’s argument consists of a group of fields separated by a colon (:), as shown below. The fields are, in order:

  • username : The username of the user for whom the entry provides options
  • umask : The umask for this user, in octal, just as it would be specified to the shell access bits. Five binary digits, which indicate whether the user is allowed to use rsync, rdist, cvs, sftp, and scp, in that order. One means the command is allowed, zero means it is not.
  • path : The directory to which this user should be chrooted (this is not a command, it is a directory name).

rssh examples of configuring per-user options

Open /etc/rssh.conf file:
# vi /etc/rssh.conf
All user tom to bypass our chroot jail:
user=tom:077:00010
Provide jerry cvs access with no chroot:
user=jerry:011:00100
Provide spike rsync access with no chroot:
user=spike:011:10000
Provide tyke access with chroot jail located at /users
user="tyke:011:00001:/users" # whole user string can be quoted
if your chroot_path contains spaces, it must be quoted. Provide nibbles scp access with chroot directory:
user=nibbles:011:00001:"/usr/local/tv/shows/tom and jerry"

Recommended readings:

=> rssh home page
=> Redhat specific chroot jail script (outdated)
=> Refer man pages: rssh.conf, rssh, ssh, sshd, sftp, scp, rsync, sshd_config

Print / Select a paper size other than A4 when using lp command line utility

Posted on in Categories CentOS, Debian Linux, Hardware, Howto, HP-UX, Linux, OpenBSD, Shell scripting, Suse Linux, Tuning, Ubuntu Linux, UNIX last updated December 21, 2007

Under Linux / UNIX you use lp command to print files from command prompt. lp is quite useful when GUI is not installed on Linux box to print files. The lp command is simply a front end command that calls the lpr command with appropriate options. Its main use is to allow the running of precompiled binary programs and scripts that assume that the lp command is the official printing command.

Changing papa size is very easy under GUI environment. But how do you change paper size under command prompt?
By default lp print to A4 paper size. However sometime you need to print to different paper size from command prompt such as A3 or A5. To print to A3 size, enter:
$ lp -o media=A3 /path/to/file
Where,

  • -o media=size : Sets the page size to size. Most printers support at least the size names “a4”, “letter”, and “legal”.

Other useful examples

Print a double-sided legal document to a printer called “hpljf2”:
$ lp -d hpljf2 -o media=legal -o sides=two-sided-long-edge /path/to/file
Print an image across 4 pages using a printer called “epd2”:
$ lp -d epd2 -o scaling=200 filename
Print a text file with 12 characters per inch, 8 lines per inch, and a 1 inch left margin to a printer called “lpodc2”:
$ lp -d lpodc2 -o cpi=12 -o lpi=8 -o page-left=72 ~/info.txt

To know more about lp option, enter:
$ man lp

Please note that you need to configure print using CUPS configuration file /etc/cups/cupsd.conf or web based tool located at http://localhost:631/
Linux / UNIX CUPS HP printer at http://localhost:631/
(Fig 01: My CUPS Configuration, showing HP PhotoSmart Printer )