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Linux / UNIX: Find Out If a Directory Exists or Not

I’ve already written a small tutorial about finding out if a file exists or not under Linux / UNIX bash shell. However, couple of our regular readers like to know more about a directory checking using if and test shell command.

General syntax to see if a directory exists or not

[ -d directory ]
test directory
See if a directory exists or not with NOT operator:
[ ! -d directory ]
! test directory

Find out if /tmp directory exists or not

Type the following command:
$ [ ! -d /tmp ] && echo 'Directory /tmp not found'
$ [ -d /tmp ] && echo 'Directory found' || echo 'Directory /tmp not found'

Sample Shell Script to gives message if directory exists

Here is a sample shell script:

if [ $# -ne 1 ]
	echo "Usage: $0 {dir-name}"
	exit 1
if [ -d "$DIR" ]
	echo "$DIR directory  exists!"
	echo "$DIR directory not found!"
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{ 7 comments… add one }
  • aneesh November 18, 2008, 5:29 am

    Dear Friends,

    We can do the same thing to check a file exist or not by modifying the “if” loop like the following.


    if [ $# -ne 1 ]
    echo “Usage: $0 {file-name}”
    exit 1

    if [ -f “$FILE” ]
    echo “$FILE file exists!”
    echo “$FILE file not found!”

    • Vamsi October 27, 2010, 9:11 am

      u can use test -f to check whether filename exists or not
      u can use test -d to check whether directoryname exists or not

      Returns “zero” if exists and “one” if doesn’t exist.

      • Raj Shah August 28, 2013, 11:02 am

        # [ -f /path/to/dir/file_name ] && echo “File Found” || echo “File not found”

  • vignesh December 14, 2011, 1:15 pm

    i need to print the file names of all files having .txt extension of a given directory after converting to uppercase letters. The input (directory name) should be given as command line argument. The script will also check whether sufficient arguments are passed or not and whether the argument is a directory or not

    i tried using this code

    if [ -f $filename ]
    tr “[a-z]” “[A-Z]” <$filename

    but i dint get output

  • Qrious November 21, 2012, 11:46 am

    Helps me a lot !
    Thanks for posting..

  • John McLean October 10, 2013, 4:32 pm

    easier method:

    ls -d /some/carzy/directory/does/it/exist
    ls: cannot access /some/carzy/directory/does/it/exist: No such file or directory

  • Arun pandey March 16, 2016, 7:42 pm

    # dirtest.bash – Demo script by nixCraft under GPL v2.x+
    # ——————————————————-

    [ $# -eq 0 ] &if [ -d “$dir” -a ! -h “$dir” ]
    echo “$dir found and setting up new Apache/Lighttpd/Nginx jail, please wait…”
    # __WWWJailSetup “cyberciti.biz” “setup”
    echo “Error: $dir not found or is symlink to $(readlink -f ${dir}).”

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