Linux display the date when a file was accessed with stat command

Posted on in Categories CentOS, Debian Linux, File system, Linux, RedHat/Fedora Linux, Ubuntu Linux last updated August 6, 2007

A quick question from my mail bag:

How do I display or get the date when a file was last time accessed?

The best and simplest way is to use stat command. It displays file or file system status such as:

=> File size

=> File type

=> Inode number


=> File access , modify and creation time etc.

stat command example

$ stat /etc/passwd

  File: `/etc/passwd'
  Size: 2453            Blocks: 8          IO Block: 4096   regular file
Device: 806h/2054d      Inode: 25298826    Links: 1
Access: (0644/-rw-r--r--)  Uid: (    0/    root)   Gid: (    0/    root)
Access: 2007-08-06 04:45:18.000000000 -0500
Modify: 2007-07-17 16:25:12.000000000 -0500
Change: 2007-07-17 16:25:12.000000000 -0500

Display file system status

You can display file system status instead of file status. For example, display status for / file system:
$ stat -f /

  File: "/"
    ID: 0        Namelen: 255     Type: ext2/ext3
Block size: 4096       Fundamental block size: 4096
Blocks: Total: 32161831   Free: 30458361   Available: 28798245
Inodes: Total: 33226752   Free: 33135357

stat command and shell scripts

You can use stat in a shell script. It supports -c option. By default it shows all information about file. Use -c option to specify FORMAT instead of the default. For example store access time in a shell variable:

ATIME=$(stat -c "%x" /etc/passwd)
echo $ATIME

See the stat command man page for full details for the valid format sequences for files:
man stat

Speed up Apache 2.0 web access or downloads with mod_deflate

Posted on in Categories Apache, CentOS, Debian Linux, High performance computing, Howto, Linux, RedHat/Fedora Linux, Tuning, Ubuntu Linux, UNIX last updated May 24, 2006

You can speed up downloads or web page access time with Apache mod_deflate module. The mod_deflate module provides the DEFLATE output filter that allows output from your server to be compressed before being sent to the client over the network.

This decreases the amount of time and data transmitted over the network, resulting in faster web experience or downloads for visitors.

Make sure mod_deflate included with your Apache server (by default it is now installed with all modern distro).

How can I speed up downloads from my Apache 2.0 server?

Open httpd.conf file using a text editor such as vi:
# vi httpd.conf

Append following line:
LoadModule deflate_module modules/

Append following configuration <Location /> directive:
<Location />
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html text/plain text/xml

Above line only compress html and xml files. Here is the configuration from one of my production box:
<Location />
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/plain
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/xml
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/xhtml+xml
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/css
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/xml
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE image/svg+xml
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/rss+xml
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/atom_xml
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-javascript
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-httpd-php
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-httpd-fastphp
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE application/x-httpd-eruby
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html

Close and save the file. Next restart apache web server. All of the above extension file should compressed by mod_deflate:
# /etc/init.d/httpd restart

You can also specify specific directory and enabling compression only for the html files. For example /static/help/ directory:
<Directory "/static/help">
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html

In real life, there are issues with compressing other types of files such as mp3 or images. If you don’t want to compress images or mp3 files, add following to your configuration:
SetOutputFilter DEFLATE
SetEnvIfNoCase Request_URI \.(?:gif|jpe?g|png)$ no-gzip dont-vary
SetEnvIfNoCase Request_URI \.(?:exe|t?gz|zip|bz2|sit|rar)$ no-gzip dont-vary
SetEnvIfNoCase Request_URI \.pdf$ no-gzip dont-vary
SetEnvIfNoCase Request_URI \.avi$ no-gzip dont-vary
SetEnvIfNoCase Request_URI \.mov$ no-gzip dont-vary
SetEnvIfNoCase Request_URI \.mp3$ no-gzip dont-vary
SetEnvIfNoCase Request_URI \.mp4$ no-gzip dont-vary
SetEnvIfNoCase Request_URI \.rm$ no-gzip dont-vary

Please note that this processing takes additional CPU and memory on your server as well as on the client browser. So you must make decision which document you need to compress (thanks to mdxp).

See also: