I was trying to install Redhat ( RHEL 5) / CentOS 5 server on a Fujitsu Siemens ESPRIMO E5720 and got problem with the installer.
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I was writing and testing few python scripts (yes I’m moving lot of stuff from shell / perl to python these days) and accidentally I renamed my own user account from vivek to test. However, I did not noticed change until I rebooted my box. Now I cannot run sudo (or become a root user) and cannot access special devices such as sound or video.
By default your first account has all power via sudo under Ubuntu Linux. There is a special group called adm and admin which grants unlimited power via sudo.
The only solution was to boot computer in emergency mode (reboot computer and at grub menu select recovery mode kernel), open /etc/group file and add user vivek to admin and adm group:
# vi /etc/group
Add user vivek to admin and adm group:
Save and close the file.
Now I’m able to run sudo and do other stuff. Luckily, my scripts always backup critical files before modification. So I was able to restore permission instantly. Here is my group membership with all power and glory 😉
vivek adm dialout cdrom floppy audio dip video plugdev scanner netdev lpadmin powerdev admin
GNU Grub allows you to have several operating system on system and user can select one to start. Grub allows you to boot different kernels, operating system, floppy / cd boot and network boot. Dedoimedo.com has published article about how to setup and configure GRUB bootloader with multiple operating systems. This article is a compilation of sources and examples that will help you learn about GRUB. New Linux users will probably find the notion of spending hours searching for relevant pieces of information (especially if their PC won’t boot) somewhat frustrating. The goal of this guide is to help provide simple and quick solutions to most common problems regarding multi-boot setups and installation of Linux operating systems:
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Recently my hard disk went bad (some bad sectors developed), my boot.ini (Windows XP boot file) corrupted. I was using NT boot loader to load Linux. So I need to repair the Grub i.e. restore Grub in master boot record (MBR).
Today is national holiday (I-DAY) and I wanna watch TV. Problem is neither I can boot to Linux nor using XP. So I just took my Debian GNU/Linux DVD and booting started when I had presented installation option (after networking dialog prompt) :
1) Press ALT+F2 (or ALT+CTRL+F2) to get shell prompt
2) Then get the partition tables for the devices using fdisk command:
# fdisk -l
3)When you type fdisk -l, you should see your partition name: /dev/scsi/host0/bus0/target0/lun0/part1 (for IDE disk it display same device file in IDE directory)
4)Once you identified your device file, mount disk using mount command:
# mkdir /mydisk
# mount /dev/scsi/host0/bus0/target0/lun0/part1 /mydisk
5) Next use chroot command to start interactive shell with special root directory i.e. /mydisk will act as root directory.
# chroot /mydisk
6)Use grub-install command to reinstall grub (SCSI disk):
# grub-install /dev/sda
If you have IDE device following command :
# grub-install /dev/hda
Again replace /dev/hda and /dev/sda with your actual device names.
7)Type exit and reboot the system. You should see your GRUB and Linux again.
Other choice was to use Linux Live CD (e.g. Mepis) and do the above procedure. Well, I could have used the Mepis to watch TV but I had some data and emails in Tunderbird so I opted to restore the Grub; watched TV, took backup of emails and now I will put new 120 GiB hard disk tomorrow 😀