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30 Handy Bash Shell Aliases For Linux / Unix / Mac OS X

An alias is nothing but the shortcut to commands. The alias command allows the user to launch any command or group of commands (including options and filenames) by entering a single word. Use alias command to display a list of all defined aliases. You can add user-defined aliases to ~/.bashrc file. You can cut down typing time with these aliases, work smartly, and increase productivity at the command prompt.
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Would The Internet Exist Without Linux? Yes, Very Likely.

This is the dumbest article ever.

Would the internet as we know it exist without Linux? Absolutely not. Where Linux shines the most is in its server applications – no question, says Rich Menga:

Linux was literally the only OS out there that had the right price (free), ran similar to a Unix and could use existing computers of the time to connect customers. Anything else would break the bank way too easily. What would you have used that you could afford? Netware? Lotus Domino? HP-UX (that requires those refrigerator-sized HP servers)? I don’t think so.

This is really bold claim but the Internet would certainly exist without Linux. UNIX and the Internet go together. Linux is successful because of the Internet and small group of hackers connected via the Internet. Berkeley Software Distribution (*BSD) is the Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995. Also, most major ISPs and enterprises powered by commercial proprietor platforms such as Cisco. Just look at early successful web applications and companies such as Hotmail, Yahoo, Sony,Amazon and many others. What OS are they using at the time of starup?

Linux is a base platform; you need Perl, PHP, MySQL, Python, MTA and many other open source apps to make it work. Technically, Linux is kernel not even OS. Linux distribution is complete OS. If Linux was not around, Sun, *BSD and other UNIX like oses may have acted as internet servers, period.

Best Open Source Identity Management Solution: Red Hat Directory Server

Red Hat Directory Server (RHDS) wins “Best Identity Management Solution” at “SIIA’s 2008 Codie” awards. RHDS is based upon the Fedora Directory Server (FDS), which is an LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) server developed by Red Hat, as part of Red Hat’s community-supported Fedora Project. Fedora Directory Server is identical to the Red Hat Directory Server (rebranded version).

The CODiE awards is a yearly award issued by the Software and Information Industry Association for excellence in software development the software industry.

Red Hat Directory Server is a commercial version of FDS with added features like customer service and technical support. FDS is being built on top of Fedora, but supports many operating systems including Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), Debian, Solaris 8+, and HP-UX 11i. FDS has a Java-based GUI front end for administration. FreeIPA, a network identity, policy and audit suite which uses Fedora Directory Server as its LDAP component.

Get Free Interactive Shell Access to Linux / BSD and UNIX Like Operating Systems

From my mail bag:

Where can I get free interactive access to HP-UX or Linux distro or UNIX shell access?

You can simply grab and try out any Linux / BSD / Solaris Live CD. However, some time you cannot install and use particular UNIX like os. So, if you want to try the latest technologies over the Internet? Try HP TestDrive program:

This program allows you to testdrive some of the hottest hardware and operating systems available today. Have you ever wanted to try out HP’s exciting 64-bit Integrity and PA-RISC technology? Get time on SMP x86 and Opteron ProLiant servers? Try out a Blade server. Try different Open Source operating systems such as FreeBSD, Suse, Redhat, Debian and other Linux distributions.

This program is perfect for students and new users to try out and learn basis of UNIX. You can also try and test your C/C++ programs using latest Intel compilers. It is intended for those users who want to sample the 32- and 64-bit servers running a variety of HP, UNIX, Linux and third-party operating systems and applications.

=> HP Test Drive Program [hp.com]

nixCraft FAQ Roundup April 27, 2007

Recently updated/posted Linux and UNIX FAQ (mostly useful to Linux/UNIX new administrators or users) :


Search for all account without password and lock them

For security, reason it is necessary to disable all account(s) with no password and lock them down. Solaris, Linux and FreeBSD provide account locking (unlocking) facility.

Lock Linux user account with the following command:

passwd -l {user-name}

For unlocking the account use:

passwd  -u {user-name}

-l : This option disables an account by changing the password to a value, which matches no possible encrypted value.

Lock FreeBSD user account with the following command:

pw lock {username}

FreeBSD unlocking the account use:

pw unlock {username}

Lock Solaris UNIX user account with the following command:

passwd -l {username}

Lock HP-UX user account with the following command:

passwd -l {username}

For unlocking the HP-UX account you need to edit /etc/passwd file using text editor (or use SAM):

vi /etc/passwd 

However, how will you find out account without password? Again, with the help of ‘passwd -s’ (status) command you can find out all passwordless accounts.

Linux display password status

passwd -S {user-name}

-S : Display account status information. The status information consists of total seven fields. The second field indicates the status of password using following format:

  • L : if the user account is locked (L)
  • NP : Account has no password (NP)
  • P: Account has a usable password (P)
# passwd -S radmin

radmin P 10/08/2005 0 99999 7 -1

Solaris UNIX display password status

passwd -s {user-name}

-s : Display account status information using following format:

  • PS : Account has a usable password
  • LK : User account is locked
  • NP : Account has no password

I have already written about small awk one line approach to find out all passwords less accounts.

Automated Scripting Solution
However, in real life you write a script and execute it from cron job. Here is small script for Linux:

USERS="$(cut -d: -f 1 /etc/passwd)"
for u in $USERS
passwd -S $u | grep -Ew "NP" >/dev/null
if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
passwd -l $u

FreeBSD script:

USERS="$(awk -F: 'NF > 1 && $1 !~ /^[#+-]/ && $2=="" {print $0}'
/etc/master.passwd | cut -d: -f1)"
for u in $USERS
pw lock $u

Sun Solaris script:

USERS=`passwd -sa | grep -w NP | awk '{ print $1 }'`
for u in $USERS
passwd -l $u

You can easily add email alert support to script so that when ever scripts finds passwordless account(s) it will send an email alert. See the complete working example of script here.