Open source usage increased in Indian and Asian business

last updated in Categories GNU/Open source, India, Linux, News

This news is 100% true; I’ve witnessed lots of growth recently here in India, especially in Mumbai, Delhi and Bangalore. Many south states making it compulsory to use Linux and open source software for government funded project.

Way back in 1999 I switched from Windows to Linux desktop because:
=> Cost
=> Virus issues
=> Reliability & Security

Today I can almost purchase any computer or toy, money is not issue, but I still prefer to use Linux as desktop. Windows Vista has given companies in less-developed markets a reason to consider open source alternatives, especially hardware requirements are high. People in Asia still purchase and use old Celeron based computer with 128 / 256 MB RAM, here is my desktop CPU (I’m using it since last 4 years):
$ grep -i cpu /proc/cpuinfo

cpu family      : 15
model name      : Intel(R) Celeron(R) CPU 1.70GHz
cpu MHz         : 1716.927
cpuid level     : 2

Open source accounts for between 25 and 70 percent of all software in Australian, Chinese, Indian and Korean companies, according to a recent IDC survey.In an interview with ZDNet Australia sister site ZDNet Asia, Wilvin Chee, research director with IDC’s Asia-Pacific software research group, said: “Businesses are using a variety of open source software, ranging from infrastructure software and storage to enterprise applications such as CRM (customer relationship management) and ERM (enterprise resource management).”

Conducted by IDC between February and March this year, the study involved top executives from about 1,000 companies of all sizes.

Open source take-up booming in APAC (Via digg)

Hacking Beetel 220x ADSL router (Broadcom BCM6338)

last updated in Categories Howto, India, Linux, Linux Embedded devices, Tips

This router is based upon Broadcom BCM6338 chipset. This router is used by Airtel, BSNL and other ISPs in India.

Hack # 1 : How to Login into Router

Login over telnet. This is a common feature of all router these days and this the only way to hack into box:
Default IP:
Default Username: admin
Default Password: password

I have changed IP of router to so here is my first session:

$ telnet

Connected to
Escape character is ‘^]’.
BCM96338 ADSL Router
Login: admin
password: ********
Once you are logged in you will see menu:

Main Menu

1. ADSL Link State
2. LAN
3. WAN
4. DNS Server
5. Route Setup
6. NAT
7. Firewall
8. Quality Of Service
9. Management
10. Passwords
11. Reset to Default
12. Save and Reboot
13. Exit

Hack # 2: Get out of this stupid shell menu script/program
Yup, it is stupid stuff and don’t waste your time hitting CTRL+C, CTRL+D keys, to get out of this script/program (break shell script), just type sh and hit enter key at arrow prompt ->

 -> sh

And you will be taken to shell
BusyBox v1.00 (2005.09.20-19:57+0000) Built-in shell (msh)
Enter ‘help’ for a list of built-in commands.

Hack # 3: But where is my ls command…
Type ls or dir command,

# ls

ls: not found

# dir

dir: not found

They have removed the ls and dir command. But don’t worry you can use old echo command trick:

# echo *

bin dev etc lib linuxrc mnt proc sbin usr var webs

echo * is old trick which displays list of all files in current directory without using ls or dir command.

Hack #4: Looking for advanced web based configuration, use main.html
Yet another stupid thing, they have removed main.html from web based configuration. Basically main.html is use to configure advanced options of router like port forwarding, DNS setting, firewall etc.

Just type (replace with your actual router IP address) to get all advanced options.

Hack # 5: Get more information about router hardware and Linux
Since this is tiny device most of the userland command such as free, uname etc are removed. However /proc file system provides all information:

Display CPU Information

# cat /proc/cpuinfo

Display RAM Information

# cat /proc/meminfo

Display Linux versions

# cat /proc/version

Linux version (root@localhost.localdomain) (gcc version 3.4.2) #1 Tue Sep 20 15:52:07 EDT 2005

Display list of running Processes:

# ps 

Display list of all kernel module (drivers):

# cat /proc/modules

Hack # 6: Get more information about your network configuration
Display list of network interfaces

# ifconfig

Get default routing information i.e. find out your ISP’s router:

# route

Display Iptables rules

# iptables -L -n

Hack 6 : Secure your router
(A) Fire web browser such as firefox and login to web based interface. Type url main.html (or

(B) Enable Firewall
Click on Security > Ip filtering > Outgoing or Incoming > Click add

(C) Change default admin password
Click on Tools > Select Administrator and type the password. > Click apply

(D) Save changes and reboot router
Click on Management > Access Control > Password > Select Admin > Setup new password

Save changes and reboot router.

Quick reboot router with reboot command:

# reboot

See also: