HowTo: Debug Crashed Linux Application Core Files Like A Pro

Posted on in Categories Linux, Troubleshooting last updated June 18, 2010

Core dumps are often used to diagnose or debug errors in Linux or UNIX programs. Core dumps can serve as useful debugging aids for sys admins to find out why Application like Lighttpd, Apache, PHP-CGI or any other program crashed. Many vendors and open source project author requests a core file to troubleshoot a program. A core file is generated when an application program abnormally terminates due to bug, operating system security protection schema, or program simply try to write beyond the area of memory it has allocated, and so on. This article explains how to turn on core file support and track down bugs in programs.

Lighttpd web server setup custom PHP.INI file for each user or domain

Posted on in Categories Howto, lighttpd, Linux, RedHat/Fedora Linux, Ubuntu Linux, UNIX last updated July 16, 2007

You can provide each user or domain its own php.ini file. There are two basic ways to provide each user a php.ini file:

a) Setup chrooted jail for each domain and user will get /etc/php.ini inside each jail
b) Setup individual fastcgi instance for each domain along with php.ini

Let us say you have two domains as follows

  1. php.ini location /home/lighttpd/
  2. php.ini location /home/lighttpd/
  3. /etc/php.ini – generic file for the rest of all domains

You need to add following directives to lighttpd.conf file:

$HTTP["host"]  =~ "(^|\.)theos\.in$" {
  server.document-root = "/home/lighttpd/"
  accesslog.filename         = "/var/log/lighttpd/"
  server.error-handler-404 = "/index.php?error=404"
  fastcgi.server    = ( ".php" =>
                "bin-path" => "/usr/bin/php-cgi -c /home/lighttpd/",
                "socket" => "/home/lighttpd/",

$HTTP["host"]  =~ "(^|\.)cyberciti\.biz$" {
  server.document-root = "/home/lighttpd/"
  accesslog.filename         = "/var/log/lighttpd/"
  server.error-handler-404 = "/index.php?error=404"
  fastcgi.server    = ( ".php" =>
                "bin-path" => "/usr/bin/php-cgi -c /home/lighttpd/",
                "socket" => "/home/lighttpd/",

Note option -c /path/to/my/custom/php.ini passed to /usr/bin/php-cgi. It will force php to Look for php.ini file in the directory path specified by us.

Now end users can modify php.ini as per requirements.


  • Although a user can make changes to php.ini file, you still need to restart a web server using root or equivalent privileges
  • This may also open your box to new security issue such as wrong php.ini settings or user can load any custom php modules

You can apply same settings to Apache web server using jail or lighttpd fastcgi as a proxy.

Lighttpd run php from different host using mod_proxy / mod_fastcgi

Posted on in Categories High performance computing, Howto, lighttpd, Linux, UNIX last updated July 10, 2007

Lighttpd allows you to run php from different hosts. This is quite useful:

a] If you want to run php 4 locally and php 5 from remote host
b] Load balancing dynamic content
c] Added layer for security for chrooted jails etc

If you would like to run wikipedia / like site, you can use this technique. You can use mod_proxy or standard mod_fastcgi for this purpose.

How it works?

You need to use spawn-fcgi binary that spawns fastcgi processes. With spawn-fcgi you can bind php to particular port or unix-domain socket (little fast as compare to tcp port). It will take off some load from the webserver you have to control the FastCGI process by a external program like spawn-fcgi.

For example following command uses unix-domain to launch fastcgi process:
spawn-fcgi -s /tmp/php-fastcgi.sock -f /usr/bin/php-cgi -u lighttpd -g lighttpd -C 5 -P /var/run/

This one bind itself to TCP port 8081
spawn-fcgi -p 8081 -a -f /usr/bin/php-cgi -u lighttpd -g lighttpd -C 5 -P /var/run/


  • -f {fcgiapp} filename of the fcgi-application, e.g php – /usr/bin/php-cgi
  • -a {addr} : bind to ip address
  • -p {port} : bind to tcp-port
  • -s {path} : bind to unix-domain socket
  • -C {childs} : (PHP only) numbers of childs to spawn (default 5)
  • -P {path} : name of PID-file for spawed process, so that we can kill process later on
  • -n : no fork (for daemontools)
  • -c {dir} : chroot to directory
  • -u {user} : change to user-id
  • -g {group} : change to group-id

Using mod_proxy / mod_fastcgi, we can process everything on or cluster of php servers:

Web server <----> php-request <----> PHP listing on 

A php / ruby / java app cluster server:

Web server <----> php-request <----> // PHP listing on 
                              // PHP listing on  
                             // PHP listing on 

Task: Run php from and 8081 port

Make sure you copy spawn-fcgi file to, now enter following command:
# spawn-fcgi -p 8081 -a -f /usr/bin/php-cgi -u lighttpd -g lighttpd -C 10 -P /var/run/
Make sure firewall is not blocking access to

Now open ligttpd.conf on other host and enter mod_fastcgi as config as follows:

fastcgi.server = ( ".php" =>
       "host" => "",
       "port" => 8081

Save and close the file. Restart lighttpd:
# /etc/init.d/lighttpd restart

You can use mod_proxy configuration as follows, if one of the hosts goes down the all requests for this one server are moved equally to the other servers.

$HTTP["host"] == "" {
  proxy.balance = "hash"
  proxy.server  = ( "" => ( ( "host" => "","port" => 8080  ),
                            ( "host" => "" ,"port" => 8080),
                            ( "host" => "" ,"port" => 8080),
                            ( "host" => "" ,"port" => 8080),
                            ( "host" => "" ,"port" => 8080) ) )

This is just an introduction, feel free to explore mod_proxy documentation for more information.

Red Hat enterprise Linux Install lighttpd and Fastcgi PHP

Posted on in Categories Howto, lighttpd, RedHat/Fedora Linux last updated August 29, 2007
Lighttpd logo

I have received many queries regarding how to configure and install Lighttpd web server under Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 4.0. Mark asks:

RHEL 64 bit v4.0 does not support PHP as FastCGI. Lighttpd is not available from RHN (up2date command). How do I configure and install lighttpd with FastCGI?

Ok let me answer these questions and other queries systematically. I have installed Lighttpd under both RHEL v4.0 32/64 bit version couple of times. In all cases, you need to compile both PHP and Lightttpd. Do not worry steps are quite easy.

Install and configure Lighttpd under RHEL

RedHat Linux use RHN to provide stable version of all software(s) including PHP/Apache and for some weird reasons it does not come with lighttpd web server. However, I have tested RHEL v.5.0 (beta) which comes with lots of goodies such as caching software, fastcgi etc.

Step #1: Install and configure Lighttpd under RHEL 64 bit v4.0

First, you need to remove installed PHP version. Use rpm -qa | grep php command to find out list of all installed PHP rpm files:
# rpm -qa | grep phpRemove all PHP files:# rpm -e php php-devel php-imap php-ldap php-pear

Step #2: Download lighttpd source code

There is no official RPM file available from Red Hat itself for 64/32 bit version. You can download and compile Lighttpd as follows:
# wget
# tar -zxvf lighttpd-1.4.16.tar.gz
# cd lighttpd-1.4.16

Step #3: Compile and install lighttpd:

Following commands will compile lighttpd with OpenSSL support. First, configure lighttpd:
# ./configure --program-prefix= --prefix=/usr --exec-prefix=/usr --bindir=/usr/bin --sbindir=/usr/sbin --sysconfdir=/etc --datadir=/usr/share --includedir=/usr/include --libdir=/usr/lib --libexecdir=/usr/libexec --localstatedir=/var --sharedstatedir=/usr/com --mandir=/usr/share/man --infodir=/usr/share/info --with-openssl

Now compile lighttpd
# make

Install lighttpd:
# make install

Step #4: Build PHP RPM as FastCGI

Now recompile PHP and build PHP RPM as FastCGI. Download PHP SRPM from official Red Hat Site or use following command to download PHP source RPM (recommended):
# cd /opt
# up2date -d --src php

Now install downloaded source RPM file:
# rpm -ivh php-4.3.9-3.1.src.rpm

First, install all necessary development libraries:
# up2date aspell-devel libjpeg-devel libpng-devel libc-client-devel mysql-devel postgresql-devel unixODBC-devel net-snmp-devel elfutils-devel libxslt-devel freetype-devel

Open php rpm configuration file:
# cd /usr/src/redhat/SPECS/
Open php.spec file:
# vi php.spec
Find out line, which read as follows:

Before that line add:
--enable-fastcgi \
Save and close the file.

Compile and build RPM file:
# rpmbuild -bb php.spec

Now install all newly rebuild RPM files. Go to /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/x86_64 directory, where all newly build RPMs are stored:
# cd /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/x86_64
# rpm -ivh php-4.3.9-3.18.x86_64.rpm php-gd-4.3.9-3.18.x86_64.rpm php-imap-4.3.9-3.18.x86_64.rpm php-mysql-4.3.9-3.18.x86_64.rpm php-mbstring-4.3.9-3.18.x86_64.rpm php-pear-4.3.9-3.18.x86_64.rpm

Make sure php is installed with fastcgi:
# php -vOutput:

PHP 4.3.9 (cgi-fcgi) (built: Oct  2 2006 15:31:07)
Copyright (c) 1997-2004 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v1.3.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2004 Zend Technologies

If you do not have development environment installed or if you are too lazy to compile download AMD x86_64 RPM files. Please note that these files are provided as it is.

Basic Lighttpd configuration

a) Add a lighttpd user
# adduser -s /sbin/nologin lighttpd

b) Create a lighttpd.conf file
# mkdir /etc/lighttpd
# cd /etc/lighttpd
# vi lighttpd.conf
Add following config code:
server.modules = (
"mod_accesslog" )
index-file.names = ( "index.php", "index.html",
"index.htm", "default.htm" )
mimetype.assign = (
".rpm" => "application/x-rpm",
".pdf" => "application/pdf",
".sig" => "application/pgp-signature",
".spl" => "application/futuresplash",
".class" => "application/octet-stream",
".ps" => "application/postscript",
".torrent" => "application/x-bittorrent",
".dvi" => "application/x-dvi",
".gz" => "application/x-gzip",
".pac" => "application/x-ns-proxy-autoconfig",
".swf" => "application/x-shockwave-flash",
".tar.gz" => "application/x-tgz",
".tgz" => "application/x-tgz",
".tar" => "application/x-tar",
".zip" => "application/zip",
".mp3" => "audio/mpeg",
".m3u" => "audio/x-mpegurl",
".wma" => "audio/x-ms-wma",
".wax" => "audio/x-ms-wax",
".ogg" => "application/ogg",
".wav" => "audio/x-wav",
".gif" => "image/gif",
".jpg" => "image/jpeg",
".jpeg" => "image/jpeg",
".png" => "image/png",
".xbm" => "image/x-xbitmap",
".xpm" => "image/x-xpixmap",
".xwd" => "image/x-xwindowdump",
".css" => "text/css",
".html" => "text/html",
".htm" => "text/html",
".js" => "text/javascript",
".asc" => "text/plain",
".c" => "text/plain",
".cpp" => "text/plain",
".log" => "text/plain",
".conf" => "text/plain",
".text" => "text/plain",
".txt" => "text/plain",
".dtd" => "text/xml",
".xml" => "text/xml",
".mpeg" => "video/mpeg",
".mpg" => "video/mpeg",
".mov" => "video/quicktime",
".qt" => "video/quicktime",
".avi" => "video/x-msvideo",
".asf" => "video/x-ms-asf",
".asx" => "video/x-ms-asf",
".wmv" => "video/x-ms-wmv",
".bz2" => "application/x-bzip",
".tbz" => "application/x-bzip-compressed-tar",
".tar.bz2" => "application/x-bzip-compressed-tar"
########## BASE CONFIG - EDIT BELOW #########################
server.tag = "lighttpd (RedHat)"
accesslog.filename = "/var/log/lighttpd/access_log"
server.errorlog = "/var/log/lighttpd/error_log"
server.document-root = "/var/www/html/"
url.access-deny = ( "~", ".inc" )
static-file.exclude-extensions = ( ".php", ".pl", ".fcgi" )
server.port = 80
server.bind = ""
server.error-handler-404 = "/errorr404.php" = "/var/run/"
server.username = "lighttpd"
server.groupname = "lighttpd"
compress.cache-dir = "/tmp/lighttpd/cache/compress/"
compress.filetype = ("text/plain", "text/html")
$HTTP["url"] =~ "\.pdf$" {
server.range-requests = "disable"
fastcgi.server = ( ".php" =>
( "localhost" =>
"socket" => "/tmp/php-fastcgi.socket",
"bin-path" => "/usr/bin/php",
"max-procs" => 2,

c) Create a lighttpd sysconfig file:
# vi /etc/sysconfig/lighttpd
Add following line:
Save and close the file.

d) Create a lighttpd startup file (init.d script)
# vi /etc/init.d/lighttpd
Append following line:
# lighttpd Startup script for the lighttpd server
# chkconfig: - 85 15
# description: Lighttpd web server
# processname: lighttpd
# config: /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf
# config: /etc/sysconfig/lighttpd
# pidfile: /var/run/
# Source function library
. /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
if [ -f /etc/sysconfig/lighttpd ]; then
. /etc/sysconfig/lighttpd
if [ -z "$LIGHTTPD_CONF_PATH" ]; then
start() {
echo -n $"Starting $prog: "
daemon $lighttpd -f $LIGHTTPD_CONF_PATH
[ $RETVAL -eq 0 ] && touch /var/lock/subsys/$prog
return $RETVAL
stop() {
echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "
killproc $lighttpd
[ $RETVAL -eq 0 ] && rm -f /var/lock/subsys/$prog
return $RETVAL
reload() {
echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "
killproc $lighttpd -HUP
return $RETVAL
case "$1" in
if [ -f /var/lock/subsys/$prog ]; then
status $lighttpd
echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart|condrestart|reload|status}"
exit $RETVAL

Save and close the file.

e) Create necessary directories and set correct permissions:
# mkdir -p /var/log/lighttpd
# mkdir -p /tmp/lighttpd/cache/compress/
# chown lighttpd:lighttpd /var/log/lighttpd
# chown lighttpd:lighttpd /tmp/lighttpd/cache/compress/

f) Start the lighttpd, but first stop Apache if running:
# chkconfig httpd off
# /etc/init.d/httpd stop
# chkconfig --add lighttpd
# chkconfig lighttpd on
# /etc/init.d/lighttpd start

Verify that Lighttpd is running:
# netstat -tulpn | grep :80

Update: See how to use lighttpd and FastCGI configuration under RHEL 5.0 / CentOS 5.0.

Lighttpd PHP fastcgi configuration

Posted on in Categories Howto, lighttpd, Linux, Networking, php, RedHat/Fedora Linux, Suse Linux, Sys admin, Ubuntu Linux, UNIX last updated July 3, 2007
Lighttpd logo

FastCGI is a language independent, scalable, open extension to CGI that provides high performance without the limitations of server specific APIs. FastCGI provides better scalability and performance. Instead of creating a new process (the CGI program) for every request, FastCGI uses a single persistent process which handles many requests over its lifetime. (See wikipedia article for more information)

Make sure php support fastcgi

Type any one of the following command to verify that php support fastcgi
$ php -v


PHP 5.0.4 (cli) (built: Nov  8 2005 08:27:12)
Copyright (c) 1997-2004 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v2.0.4-dev, Copyright (c) 1998-2004 Zend Technologies

$ php-cgi -v

PHP 5.0.4 (cgi-fcgi) (built: Nov  8 2005 08:25:54)
Copyright (c) 1997-2004 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v2.0.4-dev, Copyright (c) 1998-2004 Zend Technologies

You must get string cgi-fcgi. Next find out full path to php-cgi or php binary:
$ which php-cgi


Open lighttpd configuration file:
# vi /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf

First add the module mod_fastcgi (lighttpd provides an interface to a external programs that support the FastCGI interface via this module). Make sure your server.modules loades mod_fastcgi:

server.modules              = (

Now add following lines to configuration:

fastcgi.server = ( ".php" => ((
                     "bin-path" => "/usr/bin/php-cgi",
                     "socket" => "/tmp/php.socket"

Save the configuration and close all the files. Restart the lighttpd:
# /etc/init.d/lighttpd restart

Test your configuration by running php program or application.

See also