Download of the day: OpenBSD 4.6 CD ISO Images

Posted on in Categories Download of the day, OpenBSD last updated October 19, 2009

OpenBSD 4.6 has been released and available for download from the official website. OpenBSD is well known for record of more than ten years with only two remote holes in the default install. The OpenBSD is widely known for the quality open source code and documentation, uncompromising position on software licensing, and focus on security and code correctness.

Find out if service / server running in chrooted jail or not under Linux

Posted on in Categories Howto, Linux, Sys admin, Tips last updated September 10, 2007

Chrooted jail allows run command or service such as http / mysql / postfix with special root directory i.e. chroot changes the root directory for application. The biggest benefit is a service that is re-rooted to another directory cannot access files outside that directory. Basically you are going to set service in sandbox. Chrooting offers the following 2 benefits:

[a] Service Isolation

[b] Privilege Separation

But how do you find out if service / server is chrooted or not under Linux?

Simply run ls -ld command on /proc/MAIN-PID/root directory.

For example, find out if httpd chrooted or not:
pidof httpd


Run ls command:
ls -ld /proc/23456/root

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Sep 10 02:52 /proc/23456/root -> /wwwdata

Find out if postfix is chrooted or not (PID 4645):
ls -ld /proc/4645/root
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Sep 10 02:59 /proc/4645/root -> /
The PID 4645 pointing out to / (root) i.e. the root directory for application is not changed or chrooted. This is a quick and dirty way to find out if application is chrooted or not w/o opening configuration files.