Linux: Monitor Hard Disks Temperature With hddtemp

Posted on in Categories CentOS, Debian Linux, Hardware, Howto, Linux, Monitoring, RedHat/Fedora Linux, Suse Linux, Tips, Troubleshooting, Tuning, Ubuntu Linux last updated June 25, 2017

There is a nice utility to monitor hard drive temperature. Most modern x86 computer hard disk comes with S.M.A.R.T (Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology). It is a monitoring system for computer hard disks to detect and report on various indicators of reliability, in the hope of anticipating failures.

Convert pixmaps file into a Windows .ico file to create a favicon.ico file with GIMP

Posted on in Categories Apache, Debian Linux, Howto, lighttpd, Linux, Linux desktop, Tips, Ubuntu Linux last updated October 8, 2007

Favorites icon (favicon) file is placed in a web server root directory. It is a page icon or associated with a particular website. For example when you visit our site you see favicon in the browser’s URL bar, next to the site’s name. Also it appears next to the site’s name in lists of bookmarks, and next to the page’s title in a tabbed document interface.

There is a tool called ppmtowinicon which convert 1 or more portable pixmaps into a Windows .ico file You need to specify one or more portable pixmaps as input and it produces a Microsoft Windows .ico file as output. A Windows icon contains 1 or more images, at different resolutions and color depths. Microsoft recommends including at least the following formats in each icon (size and bits-per-pixel):
=> 16 x 16 – 4 bpp
=> 32 x 32 – 4 bpp
=> 48 x 48 – 8 bpp

How to create a favicon.ico with GIMP

How to create a favicon.ico with GIMP

You need to install netpbm – a graphics conversion tools under Linux / UNIX. You also need GIMP – the GNU Image Manipulation program to create a favicon on Linux.

Install netpbm and GIMP

Use apt-get command to install packages under Debian / Ubuntu Linux:
$ sudo apt-get install netpbm gimp

Step # 1: Convert logo to ppm raw format

  1. Open your logo using GIMP
  2. Now cut and paste logo in square
  3. Next resize logo by visiting Image > Scale image option. Set pixel size to 16 x 16 or 32 x 32 or 48 x 48.
  4. Next click on File > Save as > Enter file name as favicon.ppm > Click on Save > Raw Encoding > Ok

Step # 2: Convert portable pixmaps into a Windows .ico file

Now run the following command to create a .ico file:
$ ppmtowinicon -output favicon.ico favicon.ppm

Step # 3: Upload favicon.ico file

Upload favicon.ico file to webserver root directory such as /var/www/html or /srv/httpd/

Step # 4: Favicon example

To activate favicon, modify your site pages or template by placing following code between <head>…</head> section:

<link rel="shortcut icon" href="/favicon.ico" />

Howto: Ubuntu Linux convert DHCP network configuration to static IP configuration

Posted on in Categories Ubuntu Linux last updated September 13, 2006

My friend wanted to know how to change or convert DHCP network configuration to static configuration. After initial installation, he wanted to change network settings. Further, his system is w/o GUI system aka X Windows. Here is quick way to accomplish the same:

Your main network configuration file is /etc/network/interfaces

Desired new sample settings:
=> Host IP address
=> Netmask:
=> Network ID:
=> Broadcast IP:
=> Gateway/Router IP:
=> DNS Server:

Open network configuration file
$ sudo vi /etc/network/interfacesOR$ sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces

Find and remove dhcp entry:
iface eth0 inet dhcp

Append new network settings:

iface eth0 inet static

Save and close the file. Restart the network:
$ sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart

Task: Define new DNS servers

Open /etc/resolv.conf file
$ sudo vi /etc/resolv.conf

You need to remove old DNS server assigned by DHCP server:

Save and close the file.

Task: Test DNS server

$ host

Network command line cheat sheet

You can also use commands to change settings. Please note that these settings are temporary and not the permanent. Use above method to make network changes permanent or GUI tool as described below.

Task: Display network interface information

$ ifconfig

Task: Take down network interface eth0 / take a network interface down

$ sudo ifconfig eth0 downOR $ sudo ifdown eth0

Task: Bring a network interface eth0 up

$ sudo ifconfig eth0 upOR$ sudo ifup eth0

Task: Change IP address and netmask from command line

Activate network interface eth0 with a new IP ( / netmask:
$ sudo ifconfig eth0 netmask up

Task: Display the routing table

$ /sbin/route OR$ /sbin/route -n

Kernel IP routing table
Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface
localnet        *        U     0      0        0 ra0    *        U     0      0        0 eth0    *        U     0      0        0 eth1
default         UG    0      0        0 ra0

Task: Add a new gateway

$ sudo route add default gw

Task: Display current active Internet connections (servers and established connection)

$ netstat -nat

Task: Display open ports

$ sudo netstat -tulpOR$ sudo netstat -tulpn

Task: Display network interfaces stats (RX/TX etc)

$ netstat -i

Task: Display output for active/established connections only

$ netstat -e
$ netstat -te
$ netstat -tue


  • -t : TCP connections
  • -u : UDP connections
  • -e : Established

Task: Test network connectivity

Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts, routers, servers etc with ping command. This verifies connectivity exists between local host and remote network system:
$ ping router
$ ping
$ ping

See simple Linux system monitoring with ping command and scripts for more information.

Task: Use GUI (Graphical Configuration) network Tool

If you are new, use GUI configuration tool, type the following command at terminal:
$ network-admin &

Above command is Ubuntu’s GUI for configuring network connections tool.

Final tip – Learn how find out more information about commands

A man page is your best friend when you wanted to learn more about particular command or syntax. For example, read detailed information about ifconfig and netstat command:
$ man ifconfig
$ man netstat

Just get a short help with all command options by appending –help option to each command:
$ netstat --help

Find out what command is used for particular task by searching the short descriptions and manual page names for the keyword:
$ man -k 'delete directory'
$ apropos -s 1 remove

Display short descriptions of a command:
$ whatis rm
$ whatis netstat

Linux offers an excellent collection of utilities, which can be use to finding the files and executables, remember you cannot memorize all the commands and files ๐Ÿ˜‰

How to: Allow Any User To Shutdown a Linux Server

Posted on in Categories CentOS, Debian Linux, FreeBSD, Gentoo Linux, Howto, Linux, RedHat/Fedora Linux, Sys admin, Tips, Ubuntu Linux last updated February 23, 2006

You need to use the sudo command to grant a permission to other users to shutdown your server. The sudo command allows a permitted user to execute a command as the superuser or another user, as specified in the /etc/sudoers file. Login as a root user and type the visudo command to edit the sudoers file.

FreeBSD: How to unload (remove) device driver (module) from kernel?

Posted on in Categories FreeBSD, Howto last updated December 1, 2004

FreeBSD comes with kldstat command. The kldstat utility or command displays the status of any files dynamically linked into the kernel. And the kldunload utility unloads a file which was previously loaded with lldload command. You can use kldunload command as follows.

Unload a file from the kernel

First login as a root user (use su – or sudo commnad):

Get list of loaded modules/drivers first use following command

# kldstat

To remove module use the following command

The kldstat utility displays the status of any files dynamically linked into the kernel.

kldunload -i ID


kldunload module-name

Example to unload smbfs module

Type the following command as the root user:
# kldunload smbfs
# kldunload -i 8

Please note that # 8 is module ID obtained using kldstat command.

Force the unload

You can pass -f option to kldunload to force the unload. This ignores error returns to MOD_QUIESCE from the module and implies that the module should be unloaded even if it is currently in use. The users are left to cope as best they can.
# kldunload -f smbfs